Iranian Journal of War and Public Health

eISSN (English): 2980-969X
eISSN (Persian): 2008-2630
pISSN (Persian): 2008-2622


Iranian Journal of War & Public Health (IJWPH) have started to publish scholarly articles from 2008 and in these years, have tried to do its best in publishing good-quality articles with respect to research and publication ethics rules. IJWPH is supported by "Janbazan (Veterans) Medical and Engineering Research Center" (JMERC), as the first research center in the field of late onset complications and side effects of war on health in Iran, which have started studying in this field since 1989. Producing knowledge about the health consequences of war is one of the main missions of JMERC.
37 days
Submission to First Review
79 days
Submission to Accept
38.8 days
Accept to Publish
37.91 %
Acceptance Rate
Rahmatollah Hafezi, MD, MPH
Associate Professor, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Scientific Supporters
Janbazan Medical & Engineering Research Center

Effect of Aerobic and Combined Upper Body Exercise on the Heart Structure and Function in Lower Limb Amputation Veterans

M. Heydary, S. Keshavarz, M. Kargarfard, B. Porheidar
Aims: Lower limb amputee veterans are at high risk of cardiovascular disease due to physical problems and depression after the accident caused by amputation. Aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions in improving heart structure and function. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic and combined exercises on the structure and function of the heart of lower limb amputation veterans.
Materials & Methods: This semi-experimental pre-test/post-test study was designed with two interventions and one control group. 45 randomly selected samples were divided into three groups: Aerobic training (15 people), combined training (15 people) and control (15 people). The experimental groups received the relevant intervention for 12 weeks. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test, and paired T-test were used in SPSS 25 software to analyze the data.
Findings: After 12 weeks of intervention, the groups had significant differences in weight (p=0.001) and body mass index (p=0.001). There were significant weight losses in the aerobic (p=0.001) and combined (p=0.001) training groups compared to the control group. Also, a significant decrease in body mass index was observed in the aerobic (p=0.001) and combined (p=0.001) training groups compared to the control group. A significant decrease in weight and body mass index was observed in the aerobic (p=0.001) and combined (p=0.003) training groups from pre-test to post-test.
Conclusion: Upper-body aerobic training alone and in combination with resistance training affects the functional and structural indicators of the heart in lower-limb amputees.

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Histo-morphological Study of Dorsal Skin of Hemidactylus frenatus (Asian House Gecko) in Iraq

Z.S.M. Al Kaabi
Aims: The Asian House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), one of the most ubiquitous lizards in the world, is characterized by its pantropical distribution and is heavily populated in Iraqi homes. The present study was conducted with the aim of histomorphological examination of the dorsal skin of Hemidactylus farnatus in Iraq.
Materials and Methods: Ten Hemidactylus frenatus were examined, which were gathered from various parts of the Najaf Province, Iraq. They were fixed by adhesive and were killed by chloroform. The skin was investigated by histological technique and light microscopy.
Findings: The epidermis and dermis were examined in vertical sections of the skin. In comparison to the ventral region, the dorsal region's skin was more keratinized and rougher.
Conclusion: In Hemidactylus frenatus, the epidermis is covered in overlapping, flattened scales all over the body. The epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer make up the majority of the dorsal skin's three layers. In the basal layer of the epidermis, massive, dendritic black melanophores are observed. The horizontally arranged brownish granule-containing iridophores are adjacent to the basement membrane of the epidermis.
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Protective Effect of Ipragliflozin on Acute Brain Injury Induced by Endotoxemia in Mice

A.R. Mohammad, A.A. Shnaien, S.K. Alabsawy , E.S. Hassan
Aims: This study was done to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of ipragliflozin during endotoxemia in mice.
Materials & Methods: Twenty-four adult male Swiss-albino mice aged 8-12 weeks (25-35g) were randomized into four equal groups (n=6): sham (laparotomy without cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis (laparotomy with CLP), vehicle (equivalent volume of DMSO before CLP), and ipragliflozin (3mg/kg/day, orally before CLP). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and P-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 levels were assessed in the brain tissue and histological examination was done.
Findings: The tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1B in the sham group were much lower than in the sepsis and vehicle groups. Furthermore, the ipragliflozin group had considerably lower tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1B compared to the sepsis and vehicle groups. However, the sham group showed much lower tissue levels of TLR4 and STAT3 compared to the sepsis and vehicle groups. Also, the tissue levels of TLR4 and STAT3 in the ipragliflozin group were considerably lower than those in the sepsis and vehicle groups. Histopathology analysis demonstrated that ipragliflozin might considerably reduce brain damage compared to sepsis and vehicle groups that showed interstitial edema and included glial cells with pyknotic nuclei.
Conclusion: Ipragliflozin attenuates brain dysfunction during CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis in male mice.
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Predicting Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Well-Being in FARAJA Forces Based on the Level of Physical Activity

M. Zare Shahabadi , H. Samadi, H. Abbassi, S. Abbedinzade Masoole
Aims: Employees of the Law Enforcement Command of the Islamic Republic of Iran (FARAJA) are psychologically more vulnerable than other jobs due to the inherent characteristics of the military job. Considering the importance of this issue, the main aim of the current research was to predict the cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological well-being in FARAJA forces based on the level of physical activity.
Instrument & Methods: The present research was a descriptive-correlational study, which was conducted in 2022. The research population included all the male personnel of FARAJA in Yazd City, of whom 182 individuals were selected based on the available sampling. The research tools were the Psychological Well-Being Scale (2002), the Garnefski Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (2002), and the Sharkey Physical Activity Index (1997). Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and simple linear regression using SPSS version 25 software.
Findings: The physical activity levels can significantly predict the variables of adjusted emotion regulation strategies and psychological well-being in the male FARAJA personnel (p<0.01). However, due to the low correlation with the non-adjusted emotion regulation strategies, the physical activity levels could not significantly predict this variable (p=0.48).
Conclusion: According to the results on predicting emotion regulation strategies and psychological well-being based on the level of physical activity, it is suggested to provide appropriate programs and considerations for the participation of FARAJA male employees in regular physical activities.
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Comparing the Effectiveness of a Package Containing Ability to Enjoy, the PERMA Well-Being Model, and the Time Perspective on the Academic Vitality of Veterans' Children

S. Marashi, M. Bahramipour Isfahani, M. Golparvar
Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of an educational package containing the ability to enjoy, the well-being of PERMA, and the perspective of time on the vitality of the children of veterans.
Materials & Methods: The current semi-experimental research with the pre-test post-test and follow-up design and a control group was done on 72 high school students with veteran parents in the academic year 2022-20233 in Isfahan City. The samples were selected by purposeful sampling and randomly assigned to three experimental groups (18 people each) and a control group (18 people). Those in the experimental groups participated in parallel and simultaneous training sessions on the ability to enjoy, PERMA well-being, and time perspective and the the control group received no intervention. Data were collected by the Academic Vitality Questionnaire by Dehghanizadeh and Chari (2019). To analyze the data, repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test were used.
Findings: There was a significant difference in academic vitality, ability to enjoy, PERMA well-being, and time perspective between the three experimental groups and the control group (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found between the three experimental groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The findings of this research emphasize the importance of paying attention to the academic vitality of children of veterans and have important practical implications for educational interventions useful for them.
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The Experiences of Adult Offsprings of War Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; a Qualitative Study

S. Fallahinezhad , Gh. Mandani, B. Tahanzadeh, R. Ghasemzadeh, A. Salahshouri
Aims: Families of war veterans continue to experience the consequences of war, including psychological and emotional impacts, years after the end of the conflict. This study aimed to explore the experiences of adult offsprings of war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.
Participants & Methods: This research employed a qualitative research method using a content analysis approach. Nine adult offsprings of war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder were interviewed. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews and analyzed using a contractual approach based on the Graneheim & Lundman model. Lincoln and Guba's criteria confirmed the research's validity and reliability.
Findings: The initial coding and formation of meaningful units led to data classification into 13 subcategories based on commonalities. Ultimately, five main categories were identified; an unsafe childhood, witnessing endless suffering due to their father's condition, challenges in their mother's life, empathy with their father, and fears, anxieties, and mental struggles.
Conclusion: Adult offsprings of war veterans experience various challenging events that significantly impact their quality of life.
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Splinting in Congenital Hand Anomalies; A Systematic Review

M. Pashmdarfard, M. Kalantari
Aims: Congenital hand anomalies are abnormal conditions presented at birth regardless of their cause. These abnormalities may lead to structural or functional disorders in children. The treatment of pediatric hand anomalies has been controversial, and the agreement on the gold standard for the treatment of this malformation in children has yet to be ambiguous.
Information & Methods: The aim of the present study was to review studies on splinting in congenital hand anomalies using ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE databases published from 1990 to 2023.
Findings: A total of 344 articles were found and finally, 13 articles were reviewed, of which six cases were at evidence level I (one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and five reviews), two cases were at evidence level II,  two cases were at evidence level III, one study was at evidence level IV, and two cases were at evidence level V. The methodological quality assessment of the one and five included RCTs and systematic review studies showed the moderate-to-high quality of the studies based on the scores≥5 using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scales.
Conclusion: The use of a splint alone in the function of the upper limbs of children suffering from congenital hand abnormalities cannot be presented as an effective solution.. The use of splints as the first line of congenital hand anomalies in children can be useful if prescribed during infancy and in some congenital anomalies, such as thumb and radial hand. The best treatment process for children with other hand anomalies is surgery and timely prescription of a splint.
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Assessment of Causes of Amputation Through Five Years

K.I. Raheem, O.I. Rahiem
Aims: Amputation refers to removing a limb's defective or useless portion. Although it is an awful solution, amputation may be the only strategy that can save lives. This study was done to identify the causes of amputation and build a database for assessing healthcare.
Instrument & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study, which excluded cases of congenital amputations, included all cases admitted to Ghazi Al-Hariri Hospital for surgical specialties in the center of the medical city of Baghdad from January 2016 to January 2021.
Findings: A total of 19744 patients were hospitalized in the orthopedics and trauma department, with 12381 male patients (63%) and 7363 female patients (37%). Also, 748 cases (4% of all cases) had their limbs amputated, of whom 499 cases (67%) were male and 249 cases (33%) were female. For both sexes, the average age was 46 years. The average hospital stay was close to five days. Lower limbs made up 677 cases (91%). However, the difference between these sides was too tiny to be taken into account. Trauma affected 269 patients (36%), complications from diabetes mellitus were found in 232 patients (31%), peripheral vascular ischemia affected 205 patients (27%), malignant tumor cases affected 32 patients (4%), infection was found in only three patients (0.4%), COVID-19 and rheumatologic affected only two patients (0.26%), and burn and chronic ulcers that did not respond to treatment affected just one patient (0.13%).
Conclusion: Male gender and younger ages were found with lower limb disease. Both sides were affected equally. COVID-19 may present as an ischemic limb.
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Comparison of Different Therapies on Reducing Self-Injury Behaviors in PTSD Veterans

S. Eyni
Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of DBT-PE combined treatment protocol, dialectical behavior therapy, and prolonged exposure therapy in reducing self-injury behaviors of veterans with PTSD.
Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted with a pre-test/post-test design with a control group and a follow-up. The statistical population of the research was made up of all veterans with PTSD who were referred to Isar Psychiatric Hospital in Ardabil, Iran, in 2022. The research sample consisted of 80 veterans with PTSD, who were selected from the statistical population as a purposeful sampling, considering the acceptance of veterans to participate in the research in the first place and having the entry criteria. To collect data, the Inventory of Statements about Self-injury was used. The first experimental group received DBT (10 sessions of 90 minutes), the second experimental group received PE (10 sessions of 90 minutes), and the third experimental group received DBT-PE (16 sessions of 90 to 120 minutes).
Findings: All three intervention methods were effective in reducing self-injury behaviors of veterans with PTSD (p<0.01); However, the effect of combined treatment was greater than the other two interventions (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The combined treatment method has a greater effect in reducing self-injury behaviors in veterans with PTSD compared to prolonged exposure therapy and dialectical behavior therapy. Also, prolonged exposure therapy has a greater effect than dialectical behavior therapy.
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Role of Chronic Pain and Physical Fitness in Predicting Susceptibility to Musculoskeletal Injuries in Navy Personnel

H. Shirvani, V. Sobhani, M. Kazemipour, E. Mozafaripour, Z. Yaghoubitajani
Aims: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSKI) are known as one of the most important leading causes of loss of duty time among military personnel. A practical approach to reducing the risk of MSKI and related consequences seems beneficial to identify at-risk personnel. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether chronic pain and physical fitness can predict scores of FMS tests in Navy personnel.
Instrument & Methods: 125 active-duty Navy personnel aged 18-38 participated in this cross‐sectional study at Bandar Abbas City, Iran, in 2021 winter. Susceptibility to MSKI was assessed using Functional Movement Screening, and Physical Fitness was measured using 60-second push-up and sit-up, deep squat jump, and Cooper's 12-minute run tests. Chronic pain intensity was evaluated using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire-Extended and Visual Analog Scale, respectively. A multiple linear regression model was applied to predict FMS scores.
Findings: The mean age, height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were 28.5±8.5 years, 178.9±10.2cm, 76.2±9.5kg, and 24.7±3.3kg/m2, respectively. The sit-up (p=0.002), Cooper's test distance (p=0.001), and chronic pain index (p=0.04) predicted 83% of the variance of the FMS score significantly. 
Conclusion: Sit-up number, Cooper test score, and chronic pain are the predictors of musculoskeletal injuries of Navy active personnel that predicate 83% of the variance of the functional movement screening test.
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Effect of Eight Weeks of Sports Exercises in Water on Sleep Disturbance and Alexithymia of Inactive Veterans

Sh. Rezaei, A. Kheiri, M. Esmaeili, A. Mahmoudi
Aims: This research has been conducted to investigate the effects of eight weeks of sports exercises in water on sleep disturbance and alexithymia in inactive veterans.
Materials & Methods: This semi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test control group design was conducted in the Spring of 2023. The research statistical population consisted of all non-athlete veterans, over 25% of anatomy being disabled (inactive) in Ilam city, Iran, among whom 28 individuals were selected by available and voluntary sampling and were divided randomly into two groups; experimental and control. Standard sleep quality questionnaires of Pittsburgh (1989) and Toronto Alexithymia (1994) were used to collect data. For analyzing the data, univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance was employed in SPSS 24 software.
Findings: Before the exercise intervention, there were no significant differences in sleep disturbance and alexithymia between the experimental and control groups, and the two groups were homogeneous. However, after the exercise intervention, improvements in sleep disturbance and alexithymia were observed in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05).
Conclusion: Sports exercises in water have a negative impact on sleep disturbance and alexithymia in the veteran population.
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Review of the Russia-Ukraine War and its Impact on Public Health

A.A. Sokan-Adeaga , M.A. Sokan-Adeaga , D.T. Esan , E.D. Sokan-adeaga , A.N. Oparaji , M. Aledeh , F.A. Balogun, T. Oyeyemi
Introduction: This paper adopted a desk review of existing information from peer-reviewed articles, scientific reports, and grey literature through triangulation of data sources. This article aimed to provide a concise and comprehensive overview of some environmental and public health problems resulting from the Russia-Ukraine war.
Conclusion: Just sixteen months into the face-off, the crisis has been characterized by diverse public health challenges such as environmental-induced pollution; nuclear and technological threat; energy crisis; food insecurity; humanitarian castatropic; and the likelihood of a surge in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The escalation of conflict in Ukraine has caused civilian casualities, forcing people to flee their homes seeking safety and protection. So far, it is estimated that 9,083 civilians have been killed and 15,779 injured in Ukraine; with over 18 millions refugees diplayed within and outside Ukraine as of 19th June, 2023. Furthermore, the war has notably triggered food price spike, economic pressure and social stress in most part of Africa, with the inclination to precipitate political upheaval especially in volatile countries in the continent. We opined that prompt attention should be given by international bodies and humanitarian agencies to restore public health sanity in Ukraine by providing critical protection services and humanitarian assistance. Conclusively, a cease-fire by the belligerent nations remains the only panacea to the highlighted problem.
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The relationship between the levels of serum lipids and ESR in type 2 diabetic mellitus in female

Tawhed Fadhil Jaber
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum lipid levels (VLDL, LDL, HDL, TRI, T.CHO) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients with type 2 diabetes, The study included 59 patients with type 2 diabetes and a control group of 23 women, The severity of type 2 diabetes was determined by measuring the amount of cumulative sugar in the blood (HbA1c), The relationship between type 2 diabetes and ESR, VLDL, LDL, HDL, TRI, and T.CHO was analyzed using an independent-sample test in SPSS statistics, The results showed that patients with higher ESR, VLDL, LDL, TRI, or total cholesterol levels had lower HDL levels, indicating a correlation with type 2 diabetes.
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Association of Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs10860860 with Type 2 Diabetes

Maytham Ahmed AbdulAemah, Ghufran Mohammed Hussein, Nibras Yahya Hussein
One of the extremely important public health challenges worldwide is diabetes mellitus (DM). The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a rising concern around the globe. Early revealing of T2DM is very significant in that morbidity associated with the condition can be decreased. Studies have proposed that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1)  has roles similar to that of insulin. The existing study was implemented to reveal the alliance of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10860860 of IGF-1 gene with T2DM. The study was a case control study, it involved two groups, the first one consisted of 50 persons as a control group. The second one contained 158 T2DM patients. The analysis of results explored that genotype AT was associated with lower odds of T2DM, and genotype TT was established not significantly different in the two groups with respect to those of the genotype AA. The study concluded that the AT genotype of IGF-1 gene SNP rs10860860 was negatively associated with T2DM.
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Self-esteem and its Association with Quality of Life and among Amputees

Ali Thamer Abd Alkadem, Aysen Kamal Mohammed Noori
Background: Amputation has become one of the problems of today’s society, whether it be lifestyle related or due to accident or disease. There is a large number of people who have one or both amputated lower limbs and this situation tends to increase worldwide. This study aimed to assess the self-esteem and its relationship to quality of life among amputees.
Methods: A descriptive correlational study conducted at the Babylon Center for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled during the period from October 1st 2022 to March 10th 2023. The study sample consist of 200  patients is selected according to non probability sampling approach. The validity of the questionnaire was verified by experts and its reliability was verified through a pilot study. The total number of items included in the questionnaire was 10 items to assess self-esteem and 66 items to assess quality of life. Data were collected through the interview and analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.
Results: The results indicated that the average age of the respondents was 51 years, (69.5%) males, (63.5%) married, (40%) high school graduates, (35%) government employees. More than half (60.5%) had a poor quality of life. Quality of life varies among amputees according to age, gender, marital status, occupation, reasons for amputation, site and duration of amputation.
Conclusions: People who had amputated limbs were significantly affected because they lost mobility and independence. It has been found that the quality of life of amputees attending a disabled rehabilitation center is very poor. High self-esteem confidence and the availability of rehabilitation facilities have helped the adjustment process after amputation among amputees. Social media should pay attention to educating people to raise the level of self-confidence in order to maintain the level of quality of life and promote amputees towards achieving a better quality of life. And activating the role of ministries and social institutions towards securing job opportunities for the disabled in order to secure the most basic necessities of life.
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Comparison of plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction force between veterans with leg length discrepancy and healthy subjects during walking

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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to comparison of plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction force between veterans with leg length discrepancy and healthy subjects.

 Methods: This study was qusi- experimental in which 21 veterans with leg length discrepancy (1.5 to 3 centimeter) and 10 healthy subjects participated. Plantar pressure distribution of subjects was measured in five steps with emed platform. The data were analyzed with Paired- t test, One Way ANOVA and Symmetry Index (P≤ 0.05).

Results: While the symmetry Index (SI%) wasn’t shown much asymmetry in healthy subjects, there is lower contact time in the heel region of short limb, lower pressure and force of middle region of short limb, higher pressure of forefoot region of short limb and higher pressure and force of long foot.

Disscusion: Due to the results of this study, it seems that the primary contact time and weight acceptance of short foot is reduced that this procedure result in higher pressure of forefoot region of foot before push-off phase. Therefore, this is suggested that to dispel this problem, they should use of some orthoses that can make reasonably height to the heel region and therefore increase the contact time.  

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Quality of Life in blind veterans and matched sighted individuals

V. Nejati, E. Shiri

Background and Purpose: Promotion of quality of life is final goal of therapeutic care in physical and mental handicaps. The purpose of present study is comparing quality of life in blind veterans and matched normal healthy individuals 

Method: In present cross sectional study, 88 veterans with complete blindness are compared with 88 normal healthy age, gender and education matched individuals. SF36 was used for data gathering. Descriptive analysis and T- Test are used for analysis.

Result: Findings of present study show that blind veterans have higher grade in physical activity, vitality and mental health and mental health components and lower grades in general health, social role, emotional role, physical pain and physical component.

Conclusion: Enhancement of general health, social role, emotional role, physical pain and physical component should be considered for elevation of quality of life in blind veterans.

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Effect of Recreational Sports Activities on the Physiological Parameters and Risk of Injuries in Adult Males

Alex Aldha Yudi, Nur Azis Rohmansyah, Irfan Oktavianus, Nor Ikhmar Madarsa
Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate GPS daily dependability to establish the consistency of V02max, HRmax, total distance, decelerations and accelerations done, metabolic power, relative velocity, high-speed running, and high-intensity metabolic power distance in recreational soccer.
Materials & Methods Thirty patients were included (age, 37.4 ± 2.3 years, weight, 75.8 ± 4.3 kg, height, 168 ± 5.2 cm, BMI, 28.2 ± 2, VO2max, 37.5 ± 2.5−1). The soccer matches (four on four games) were played on an artificial grass outdoor field (pitch size 40 343 m). Participants finished the match in 60 minutes and repeated the identical match a week later. Several criteria were included in the analysis: V02max, HRmax, total distance, decelerations, and accelerations, metabolic power, relative velocity, high-speed running, and high-intensity metabolic power.
Findings We discovered a high level of dependability in various metrics, including total distance (ICC = 0.56), accelerations (ICC = 0.53), mean HR (ICC = 0.71), high-speed running (ICC = 0.65), and metabolic power (ICC = 0.54).
Conclusion This study's findings demonstrated high absolute dependability and modest and inconsequential impact sizes
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ROC analyses of Plasma oxydative stress markers for Prediction of CKD complications of type 2 Diabetes

Samir Derouiche, ahmed abid, elhabib tahraoui
Background and aims: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the most important complications of diabetes. Many physiological and biochemical changes may cause these complications to appear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation oxidative stress for the diagnosis and  prediction of renal complication in type 2 diabetic patients.
Material & Methods: Sixty voluntary individuals were divided into two diabetic groups with and without CKD complication on which we assayed some biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Sensitivity and Specificity of Oxidative stress biomarkers in serum were estimated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design.
Findings: The results obtained in the present study clearly show that diabetes is confirmed by the hyperglycemia observed in all diabetic patients. The results obtained also show a significant increase (P <0.05) in the concentration of urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium and serum albumin in diabetic patients with nephropathy compared to diabetics. On the other hand, it was shown that a significant increase (P <0.05) in the concentration of MDA, GSH and  total thiol in the serum of diabetic patients compared to diabetics with complications of CKD. ROC assay analysis showed that serum GSH and MDA are predictive markers with high specificity (100%) of nephrotic complications of diabetes.
Conclusions: The present study reveals that diabetes induces metabolic and physiological alterations and an imbalance of oxidant / antioxidant status which can cause nephrotic complications suggesting the use of GSH, MDA as predictive markers for this complication of the disease.
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Melanoides tuberculate as bioindicator of the Heavy Metal contamination in water and sediment pollution of Euphrates River at Thi-Qar province- Iraq

Sanaa Talib Jawad, Qasim Muhammad Al-Taher, Ahmed F. Shihab
The aim of this study was determination the diversity of  the aquatic Gastropoda species and assessment heavy metals  of  water, sediment, soft tissue and shell Melanoides tuberculata  in Euphrates River at Thi-Qar province in southern Iraq with evaluate to  some of physical and chemical factors for river. The study was done during Summer and Winter seasons and samples were collected from of three study sites along Euphrates River. The samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for detection of heavy metals. The results were revealed that Melanoides  tuberculate , Physella acuta , Pisidium dubium, Melanopsis nodosa  and Corbicula fluminea  were found in the studied station in both season with high percentage ratio (37.73, 20.27, 6.58, 8.42, 26.98%) in summer season. Sediment has the highest mean concentration more than water. The heavy metals order was arranged as Zn < NiMelanoides  tuberculate higher than shell and they were arranged as Pb < Zn < NiMelanoides  tuberculate could accumulate the heavy metals in their metals then it could use as a bio-indicater for these metal for detection  the pollution in Euphrates river.
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Studing of genotype of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and late complications in the chemical victims Zardeh village in Kermanshah

Ph.D Ahmad Hamta, Hosna Fouladi Mansouri
Aims: Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent which targets skin, eyes and respiratory systems. Also, an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been studied in relation to cardiovascular diseases and lung fibrosis. In pulmonary fibrosis, D-allele frequency is higher than in the control population. So, it is possible that the ACE genotype influence the late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. Methods: The blood samples of thirty-four people of Zardeh village in Kermanshah who were exposed to mustard gas as a case study and thirty people in Eslam Abad Gharb in Kermanshah as the control group, were taken. Further information about the existence of respiratory, skin and ocular delayed effect of exposure to the mustard gas, were collected by questionnaires. ACE genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) and subsequent agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Incidence of respiratory, skin and eye complications were 52.9%, 50% and 44.1% respectively. Genotype frequencies for the three genotypes DD, ID and II in case group of people with pulmonary complications 0.5, 0.44 and 0.06 , and in people without this complications 0.12, 0.69 and 0.19 and in the control group, 0.3, 0.53 and 0.17 respectively. It was found that the DD genotype in patients with respiratory symptoms were higher than those without complications ( =6.22, p=0.045). Conclusion: These results suggested that DD genotype of ACE was significantly involved in genetic susceptibility to late complication of mustard gas.
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Comparison body subcutaneous fat veterans spinal cord injured athlete in sports disciplines various

mahdi saberi, mina khodaei, ahmad ebrahimi etri, seyed ali akbar hshemi javaheri
Abstract: Introduction: Increase in body fat percentage is one of the most important risk factors for disease and nutritional burden, as an independent is factor increasing the risk of mortality. Today's sedentary society, it has been the cause of many diseases in the veterans spinal cord are also due to certain health problems. Purpose: The aim of the present study and Comparison body subcutaneous fat veterans spinal cord injured athlete in sports disciplines various. Methodology: Therefore, this study on 60 veterans in 48 veteran spinal cord injury spinal cord injury athletes(12 athletes Archery, 12 athletes wheelchairrany, 12 athletes swimming, 12 athletes , wheelchair basketball) Were veterans and 12 non-athletes. To determine the amount of fat under the skin in the spinal cord of two points (sum of triceps and scapular muscles) were measured by caliper. for data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to test the assumptions in the study of inferential statistical methods such as analysis of variance ANOVA, post hoc test was used Froony bin. Research findings: The amount of subcutaneous fat bodies in the field of sports ‌ (athletes Archery wheelchairrany-swimming, wheelchair -basketball-non-athletes) there are significant differences.(p <0/05). Conclusion: Given these results, it can be seen swimming and wheelchairrany disciplines and combines these disciplines can be more effective in reducing weight in people with spinal cord injury.
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3-D Fluid-structural interaction biomechanical simulation of viscoelastic brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid with ICP consideration

Mr Amir Rouhollahi,Dr Mohammad Haghpanahi,Dr Farhad Farmanzad
Central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most important compartments controls the whole body. Inside that, there are ventricles full of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates all over the brain and spine areas. Incompressible fluid in interaction with approximately incompressible tissue in almost rigid volume called the skull makes this comparison remarkable. Slightly increase CSF volume or pressure inside the skull results in highly increase ICP pressure. In this article, the fluid-structural interaction between CSF and brain tissue is assumed in order to show the pressure and velocity distribution in different solution times. Having exported magnetic resonance images we used CATIA V5 software to make an initial 3D model, including wire frames of each slide. Then we put them together to assemble exact 3D model of the brain tissue and ventricles in it. After that we tried to simplify the geometry in order to be importable to FEA programs like ADINA. ANSYS design modeler and SOLIDWORKS were used to repair small edges and faces and make an appropriate geometry for analysis. Having completed the geometry, we imported that to ADINA software. We made boundary conditions just like the way they exist. Average inlet flow rate was equal to 500 ml per day. The outlet pressure was assumed to real ICP pressure rhythm. Finally, we compared our results to MRI studies and other simulations, which were done before.
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Review of therapeutic effect of trans cranial magnetic stimulation in psychological disorders

V. nejati

Human brain can be stimulated safely and non invasively by powerful magnetic field. This magnetic field causes a current in stimulated tissue, which stimulates the brain neurons. In psychological disorders, focal brain activity is observed in clinical syndromes. Application of trans-cranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic technique proposes to change the selective brain activities. Low frequency repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new method in evaluation and treatment of hyper excitability brain syndromes, which changes brain plasticity. In this review article, therapeutic effect of rTMS in some psychological disease such as depression, post traumatic stress disorder, epilepsy, obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia is discussed.

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survey of relationship between abnormalities of the spine and spirometric indices of spinal cord injury veterans

M. Saberi, A. Ebrahimi atri, S.A. Hashemi Javaheri, M. Mosaferi Ziaaldini, M. khodaei

Background & Purpose:   In addition to any disability, especially spinal cord injury level of sensory and motor performance of shows, other serious complications in other parts of the body, leaving lasting. . One of these complications, the spine is deformed. Many of the deformation of the spine, opening the chest to reduce this mode reduces the vital capacity and respiratory disorders, negative effects on the cardiovascular system and ultimately cause a change in the amount of their lung capacity is. The objective of this study, survey of relationship is between abnormalities of the spine (Lordosis, Kyphosis, scoliosis) and spirometric parameters (FEV1/FVC, FVC, FEV1, FEF75, PEF).

Materials & Methods:For this purpose, the present study was performed on 60 cases of spinal cord injury veterans And spirometric indices including FEV1/FVC, FVC, FEV1, FEF75, PEF was assessed using spirometry. For data analysis descriptive statistics were used and the test of Pearson inferential statistics were used.

Results: Based on survey results, a relation between Lordosis, scoliosis Kyphosis and spirometric indices, the rate and Kyphosis and  Lordosis abnormalities was significant
(P<0.05). But there is no significant difference in the rate of scoliosis (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Due to the complications of spinal deformity and subsequent loss of lung volume in the injured spinal cord injury, for deformity correction protocols and a regular exercise program continued to increase indicators lung is recommended.

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Relation between perceived social support and health promotion behaviors in chemical veterans in Ilam province on 2012-13

R. Chenary, A. Noroozi, R. Noroozi

Background & Purpose: Chemical attacks in war can make short term and long term personal, family and social damages and limited social relationships of victims as compared to ordinary people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and health promoting behaviors in chemical veteran in Ilam province 2012-13.

Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was performed in the entire moderate and severs chemical veterans, who they were covered by the Department of Veterans and Martyrs of Ilam province. Information was collected by using standard questionnaires for health-promoting behavior and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support (family, friends, and important people). The reliability and validity of these instruments was desirable. Inclusion criteria were percentage of disability with moderate and sever levels and enough physical strength to answer questions, and exclusion criteria were also lack of cooperation and have no permanent residence in Ilam province. After data collection, all data were analyzed by SPSS statistical soft ware and Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression.

Results: All of 239 veterans indicated that all of them were men with mean and standard deviation age 51.17± 8.87 years and there is a significant relation between all subscales of social support and health-promotion behavior subscales (p<0.05). Among the subscales of social support, friend support had the highest correlation with health-promoting behaviors (r= 0.391), and support from important people showed the lowest correlation (r= 0.367). The all regression models of health promotion behavior and its subscales were significant.

Conclusion: There is a relation between perceived social support especially friend support and health-promotion behaviors, therefore suggest that the friend as a resource support was used in design of educational programs.

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The relationship between basic need satisfaction and general healthof veteransofIsfahan’s AmiralmomeninHosptital

H. Salehi, A. Ghamarani, Z. Salehi

Background& Purpose: The onlyforcethat hastargetedhealth,physicalandmental. Satisfythebasicneedsrequiredto grow theconsistency,specificityandprovidepsychological well-being. The present study aims at analyzing the efficiency of basic need satisfaction in general in predicting the veterans’ general health at Isfahan’s AmiralmomeninHosptital.

Methods&Material:132 veterans were chosen randomly at AmiralmomeninHospital. They answered the questionnaires of the Basic Need Satisfaction (Basic Needs Satisfaction) and General Health (General Health Questioner ). In order to analyze the data, multivariate (step by step) regression analysis was used.

Result: The results indicated that satisfying the basic need satisfaction has correlation with the veterans’ general health (p<0.001) and also, the results indicated that among the psychological needs, satisfying the autonomy need and general health are predicted significantly (p<0.001).

Conclusion: To sum up, the results of the present study confirmed the efficiency of the basic needs satisfaction in predicting general health.

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Examining the effects of ’bad’ and ‘good’ fitting conditions supracondylar PTB socket on interface pressure and comfort of unilateral transtibial amputees: Case Study

N. Tafti, M.R. Safari, Gh. Aminian, P. Rezasoltani

Background: Changes in the volume and shape of the stump causes difficulties in maintaining A comfortable and exact fit. Improper fit causes pain, discomfort and movement between stump and socket. There is not enough document to identify how much volume fluctuation causes fitting problem . To identify and understand the relationship between the changes of interface pressure between stump and socket with mentally feeling of amputees in "good" and "bad" fitting conditions.

Method and Material: The study was conducted on two below knee amputees. The method has 2similar stages, SCS was evaluated at both stages with the difference that one was done in bad and other in good fitting condition. To examine stump-socket interface pressure at each stage,static tests with applying half and full body weight to the artifical limb and walking tests were done.

Results: With volume reduction, it seems adding several sock layers to improve fitting condition (force couple correction)imposes high interface pressure to patellar tendon and fibular head which lowers amputees feeling of comfort. Without adding sock layers,stump movement to distal causes unbearable pressure to the distal of tibia.

Conclusion: In static tests, interface pressure increased in good fitting condition at patellar tendon and popliteal region. Walking tests in good fitting condition showed less movement between stump and socket and less improper pressure. Using too many layers of socks to improve fitting causes intolareable interface pressure at regions such as petellar tendon and fibular head.

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Frequency of Phantom Pain among patients with Spinal Cord Injury

Hadi Shojaei, Alireza Jafari, Shohre Valaei

Summary: Background: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) usually have permanent and often devastating neurologic deficits and disability and pain (1). According to the National Institutes of Health, "among neurological disorders, the cost to society of automotive SCI is exceeded only by the cost of mental retardation"(2). Neurogenic pain constitutes one of the enigmatic clinical syndromes faced by patients, clinicians, and researchers (3). Materials and Methods: Current observational descriptive cross-sectional survey is performed among 270 patients with spinal cord injuries including veterans and non-veteran disabled subjects in Tehran-City during 2005. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 37.8±12.2 years. 26.3% were female and 73.7% were male. 17.4% had spinal cord injury in cervical level, 41.5% thoracic, 38.1% lumbar, and 3% Quada Equina level. 76.3% had complete and 23.7% incomplete injuries. 19.3% had injury duration of less than 5 years, 11.9% between 5 to 10 years, and 68.9% upper than 10 years. Phantom pain below the lesion level was present in 89 patients (33%) that included 26% of veterans and 37% of non-veterans. There was a statistically significant association between age, marital status, and injury duration with having phantom pain (P< 0.05). Conclusion: it is concluded that frequency of phantom pain in current study is less than all of previous studies and our patients were totally resistant to analgesic treatments which may be due to physiopathologic basis of such pains in comparison with other pains due to spinal cord injuries.

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Psychological- social consequences chemical bombardment of the Sardasht victims (a qualitative study)

B. Malkari, N. Karimian

Purpose: Aim of the present research is study of psychic and social consequences of chemical bombarding on the victims of Sardasht City by qualitative method. 

Material & Method: 15 men and 15 women of Sardasht City victims were selected as available sampling and they were interviewed in semi-structured manner. Method of qualitative research is interpretive. Results of the interviews were divided into several categories. 

Results: Results show that psychic and social consequences of chemical bombarding on the victims include complaints such as social complaints, psychic complaints, exhaustion problems, economical complaints, characteristic complaints, anger, no safety sensation, emotional interdependent, decrease of social interaction exist in victims. 

Conclusion: Results of the research demonstrate social and psychological problems have higher role in psychic- social consequences of chemical bombarding in ratio with other psychic- social consequences. Finally, we involved in limitations and providing several recommendations

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Validation of a Device for Registering Orthotic Wearing Time during the Laboratory Climate Tests on Normal Volunteers

N. Fallahian, F. Tabatabaei, M. Rahgozar , R. VahabKashani , M. Bahrami

Laboratory instrumentation of orthoses and prostheses can be used to objectively gain accurate information. In this study the measurement of orthosis wearing time during laboratory climate tests with normal volunteers were accomplished to determine the validity and reliability of the device for registering orthotic wearing time that was designed and fabricated in Iran. Orthosis wearing time is an important factor in orthotic treatment for spine disorders. A reliable and objective System for measuring orthosis wearing time currently is still lacking in Iran. After Developing such a device, our objective was to test the accuracy and validity of the device, Made in Iran which was designed to register spinal orthosis wearing time. The device had a force sensor mounted on a thoracolumbosacral orthosis pad to recorded orthosis wearing time. In an interval of 1 hour 5 Normal volunteers tested the device using a CASH orthosis. They donned the orthosis for a few minutes and doffed it meanwhile they recorded the time using a standard chronometer into the "Orthotic Wearing" form. After gaining the data one sample t-test was performed on all orthosis wearing-time intervals as recorded by the system and by the time tables filled by each of the 5 testers using a chronometer. The tests yielded 100 sensor trigger-events that is 50 times of orthotic wear (t=2.21, P=0.032). As indicated by the t-test analysis, the device for registering orthotic wearing time had accurately quantified the orthosis wearing-time intervals during the laboratory climate tests with normal volunteers.

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Investigating the Influence of training religious coping skillson resiliency, adaptability and stress management in veterans' spouses

S. Askaryan, M.J. Agheri , M.H. Hassan Zadeh

Background & Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study the effect of training religious coping skills on Resiliency and adaptability components and stress management in veterans' spouses.

Methods & Materials: This study is quasi-experimental. Statistical population included 70 veterans' spouses whose children were studying in Shahed primary school of Mashhad in district5, in 1392-1391education year. For sampling, Available method was used and all the testees were given Connor & Davidson Resilience Questionnaire and bar-on emotional intelligence Questionnaire for investigating two components.30 spouses, results who gained the lowest score in both tests, were selected after the Survey. The testees were divided to two Equal experiment and control groups, through random assignment. Then experiment group was provided religious coping skills training with the Islamic approach in10 sessions. Finally, a post-test was taken from both groups.

Results: The data analysis was performed, for obtaining covariance and Pearson correlation test. Results show a meaningful measure of 0.01 and variables showed direct relationship to the testing component in Pearson correlation test therefore it can be concluded that training of religious coping skills may be useful for veterans' spouses on their resiliency, adaptability.

Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, It is concluded that training spouses of veterans, religious coping skills can be effective in Improving their level of mental health and empowering them to deal with their problems.

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Localization of Hemoxigenase in the epithelium of human air way wall induced by sulfur mustard

M.R. nourani, L. Mirbagheri, M. Habibi Rodkenar, M. Ebrahimi, S. Yazdani, A.A. Imani Fouladi

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) as an effective chemical agent was used recently in the Iraq war against Iran. Currently more than 40,000 chemical casualty of war left with lung lesions caused by mustard gas.

This combination induce the production of oxygen free radicals are molecules that activate inflammatory processes. Heme Oxigenase is one of the important proteins that decrease the harmful effects of free radicals and involved in many cellular functions such as oxidant/antioxidant system balance in respiratory system.

Methods: 12 biopsy samples of the airway wall (8 chemical samples and 4 control samples) obtain by bronchoscopy. After fixation in Parafrmaldehyd 4%, 20 microns slices were prepared by Cryostat. The expression of HO1, a polymorphism of HO, by immunohistochemistry method in samples of veterans and control groups analysed and were compared.

Results: SM exposed samples were immunonegative for HO1 antibodies in compare to unexposed patients, while Normal ones expressed in high intensity in epithelium as a basal expression.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that this molecule play an important role in protecting cells against oxidative stress, including the poisoning of SM. So it concluded that the absence of this protective factor may be cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and continuity of problem.

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Energy Storing and -Revealing Prosthetic Feet A Review Study

N. Fereshtenejhad , F. Pol , T. Tahmasebi, A. Ebrahimi

Aims: Since 1990 a new generation of prosthetic feet as "energy storing" in order to improve the performance and mobility of amputees entered to the markets. The aim of this study was to expansion and explanation of the concept of energy and terms relating to energy transfer as well as an overview of energy storing and returning measurement of prosthetic. 

Information & Methods: In this review study, a systematic search of electronic databases, Google Scholar and PubMed was done and papers published from 1950 to 2013 were studied. Key words used were included various combinations of energy analysis, ESAR prosthetic feet and their synonym terms.

Findings: The results obtained from articles classified and examined in the three domains of concepts of energy and energy-related terms, methods of energy analysis in the prosthetic feet and functional classifications and naming of the feet enable to energy storing.

Conclusion: Analysis of the structure and components of prosthesis make it possible to understand how it works. One of the major issues in the analysis of energy transfer of prosthesis is the proper amount of absorption and energy release and the effect of it on amputee. Optimal performance and health of amputee is effective in designing these kinds of prosthesis.

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Quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome referred to clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran

E. khatibi aghda , M.T. Hollisaz, M. Asheghan, A. Shamseddini, V. Sobhani, S. Labbaf

Background & Purpose: Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic disease with unknown etiology musculoskeletal pain and tender points throughout the body are numerous. The aim of this study was to measure quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome that referred to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic in Baqiyatallah Hospital.

Methods & Materials: Patients that referred to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic by a trained physician were asked about diffuse chronic pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, age, body mass index, level of education and number of children. To assess quality of life, 36-SF questionnaire was used. Also to assess pain, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used. The same physician did a thorough physical examination with special attention to the tender points in order to diagnose fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria.

Results: In the study of 59 patients referred to the Baqiyatallah hospital, the findings showed that there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and pain (p=0.002), age (p=0.01), body mass index (p=0.04) and morning stiffness (p=0.001). However, there is no statistically significant relationship between level of education and quality of life (p=0.09). Also, according to the finding, all quality of life components, especially the physical components, is affected by Fibromyalgia syndrome.

Conclusion: According to the study findings, the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients affected by multiple factors such as diffuse chronic pain, body mass index, age, morning stiffness.

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Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies of Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Veterans

Y. Naderi , A.R. Moradi , J. Hasani , S. Noohi

Introduction: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on The Emotional Schema & Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies of patients suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Method: 6 patients from the clients of psychiatric clinic of Baqiyatallah hospital, were selected through available sampling, matched together and then divided into 3 groups (Emotional Schema Therapy combined with Medications, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy combined with Medications & Medications) Patients were examined 5 & 3 times by Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS) and the Short Form of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-18) and The Persian versions of the Impact of Event Scale-Revise (IES-R). To analyze the data, indexes of effect size, cohen’s d, process changes, slope and interpretation of ups & downs in charts were employed.

Result:  After treatment, scores of patients who Emotional Schema Therapy received showed decrease in Negative Emotional Schema(Rumination, guilt, uncontrollability) & Maladaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation strategies (Self-blaming, Rumination, Catastrophizing) additionally, in some Adaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation strategies (Positive refocusing, Refocusing on planning, Positive Reappraisal)and Adaptive Emotional Schema (higher values, acceptance, consensus, Comprehensibility) an increase was observed.

Conclusion: Emotional Schema Therapy via targeting directly mechanisms of pathological Emotional Schemas & Maladaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation strategies. can be appropriate choice for treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

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Viewpoints of Veterans Affected by Psychological Disorders towards usage of telemental services for War Veterans

M. Ahmadi, K. Bahaadinbeigy, T. noori

Background & Purpose: The use of telemedicine in military capabilities, access to specialized medical services, resulting in a continuing care for veterans is possible. This study aimed to investigate psychological warfare point of using mental health systems has been done remotely for war veterans.

Methods & Materials: This cross - sectional study was conducted in 2013 A questionnaire was designed and standardized by receiving comments from telemedicine experts and psychiatrist. The researcher personally visited respondents, thus 100% data were collected. Data analysis using 17.0 SPSS software and descriptive statistics were performed.

Results: Veterans on the effectiveness and necessity of mental health service use remote stressed. And concerns about access to a computer, provided the drug, the need for further training and active involvement of families.

Conclusion: It is clear that the Telemental health is practical solutions to meet the mental health needs of veterans. .In the discussion, such as user training requirements, reliability, confidentiality and other legal policies should be considered. Experiences of other countries indicate the success of this type of service needs assessment, feasibility and planning is correct.

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Fertility and sexual function after spinal cord injury

M. Soroush , E. Modirian , H. Zamani , S. Attari

Following damage to spinal cord, sexual function and fertility of the survivors would greatly be affected and using assistive reproductive therapies would be inevitable. During a 2-year program, 1429 SCI survivors of Iran-Iraq War were thoroughly examined by urologists. Patients' demographic characteristics and information relevant to sexual and fertility status as date of marriage, number of children and use of assistive reproductive therapies, were recorded. The mean age of the survivors was 37.9±8.5 y/o and the mean period after injury was 14.6±2.9 years. 87.4% of the subjects suffered from paraplegia and 98.4% of them were men. Sexual dysfunction reported in 69.9% of the subjects while fertility problems observed in 58.5%. 23.7% of the cases had no child and 30.4% had a single one. Success rate following IUI, IVF and were 21.9%, 24.1% and 20% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no relation between level of spinal cord injury and fertility. Relatively high success rate after assistive reproductive therapies would maintain the hope of bearing a child after Spinal Cord Injury.

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Quality of services provided to veterans referred to a branch of the armed forces in Hamadan

M.K. Bahadori, R. Zaboli, A. Ghanbari

Background & Purpose: The services quality problems arise in organizations that do not pay attention to understanding of the customer needs and don’t try to meet them. This goal of this study was to Survey of services quality provided in branch of the armed forces in Hamadan from viewpoint of veterans using by SERVQUAL method in 2013.

Methods & Materials: This study was descriptive and analytical Study. Sample size included 100 people. Standard SERVQUAL questionnaire with 26 questions were conducted to collect data. The veterans answered the questions in exceptions section about of ideal or optimal situation and about current situation in perception section and based on these results, the gap quality were determined. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software and descriptive and analytical statistical including frequency tables and standard deviation.

Results: Based on result, exceptions related staffs in whole dimensions were upward on current situation. The highest mean of scores in expectation sector was related to the assurance of services warrantee (3.93 ±1.02) and the lowest mean of scores was related of empathy (3.63± 1.05).

Conclusion: Services organizations including of insurance branch must make effort to understand the needs and demands of customers fully. Sometimes these organizations recognize what is important for customers by themselves. Inappropriate diagnosis of needs caused of customer dissatisfaction and increases of distance between real and ideal satisfaction. Using servqual model and quality assessment from viewpoint of customer, with proper planning will be improving quality of services.

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Comparative of Mental Health Disabled People of Athletic and Non-Athletic

H. Bakhshayesh, F. Bahmani, M. Kamali

Background: In the field of exercise and mental health was already on the perception that sport is beneficial for physical health. Today physical exercise can also be effective in promoting mental health.

Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare mental health of athletic and non-athletic disabled people in Arak city.

Materials and Method: A descriptive-analytical study and cross method, was done to evaluate the mental. Disabled man in the entire city was considered as a population study. Samples were selected randomly into two groups with 120 athletes (60) and non-athletes (60). Mental health of participants was assessed by GHQ-28. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test was used for data analysis.

Results: Findings of study showed significant differences between mental health of athletic and non-athletic disabled people. Disabled people that participant in physical activity were in better mental health situation than the non-athletic disabled people.

Conclusion: According to sport effective role on mental health of people, especially disabled people recommend responsible organizations for making the bed than the rest of the act.

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Association of Thought control strategies and beliefs about worry with stress symptoms among war veterans

A. Azizi, P. Mohammadkhani, P. Abbasi

Background & Purpose: Metacognitive therapy is one of approaches of third wave cognitive behavioral therapy that has proved its effectiveness in psychiatric disorders. If metacognitive model is true in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD), it can be used in treatment of war veterans with this disorder.The present study aimed to assess the contribution of metacognitive beliefs and coping strategies characterized by worry to the persistence of stress symptoms in a war veteran population that experience much stress.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study and 144 veterans that experiencing a lot of stress after returning from the war evaluated by Metacognitive, Thought Control and Impact of Event-Revised scales. The data from the study was analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, multiple regression analysis and path analysis.

Results: In line with the predictions made by the Well metacognitive model (2000), worry thought control strategy, Positive and negative beliefs about worry is highly correlated with Stress Symptoms. Mediational path analyses provided support for the mediational predictions. The association between positive metacognitive beliefs is mediated by worry, whilst there is a direct relationship between negative metacognitions and stress symptoms.

Conclusion: results of this study show metacognitive model is applicable in war veteran population that experience much stress and can be used of treatment consideration of this model in reduction of stress symptoms.

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The Correlation of Social Support, tolerance and Mental Health in Children of Martyrs and war-disabled in Universities of Ilam

S. azadi, H. Azad

Introduction: Mental health -as one of the two primary elements of health- is a requirement for a effective, positive and pleasant life. Also mental health of people in a society, especially that of the effective groups, is necessary for the dynamism and development of the society. The primary role of university students as future’s managers in every society shows the necessity of ensuring their mental health, finding and eliminating the negative elements affecting the mental health. Goal: This research has been done to investigate the Correlation of Social Support tolerance and Mental Health.

Material: The subjects were 1233 Children of Martyrs and war-disabled in Universities of Ilam (338 students of Associate’s Degree : 27.41 percent, 895 students of B.A :72.58 percent . Using KORJSI AND MORGAN, 297 students were selected unintentionally and filled in the questionnaire of GOLDBERG and HILYER’S (1997) TOLERANCE AND PHILIP’S SOCIAL SUPPORT. For analyzing the results, in addition to descriptive variables, one way variance analysis, T-TEST AND structural equation modeling WERE USED.

Results: Findings in this research indicate a significant relationship between Social Support and Mental Health (0.333), Social Support and tolerance (0.331) and also tolerance and mental health (0323). In this regard, social support of other important people in life (0.67), social support of the family (0.56), social support of friends (0.42) have the most significant relationship with mental health. Also in the step by step regression model, social support 0.411, social support and tolerance 0.614 predict mental health variance. Also, In structural equation modeling , the direct effect of support on health is 0.411, the indirect effect of support on health is 0.42 and the direct effect of tolerance on health is 0.15.

Discussion and Conclusion: Social support is one of the most powerful predictors of mental health, in a sense that the more extended social network support the person has, the more mentally healthy he is. Vaccinating the individuals against stressful situations before happening, social support reduces the rate of mental stress. On the other hand, tolerance is a factor which enhances the rate of life satisfaction since it reduces individual's negative emotions and increases the mental health rate. Also tolerance is defined as a resource to overcome the difficulties in life more easily, to resist against stress and eliminating their psychological effects. Findings in this research, parallel to other researches, indicate that people with high levels of tolerance, keep their psychological health in stressful and tough situations and enjoy psychological adaptation.

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The Comparison of the quality of life of the war veterans families with/without Post traumatic Stress Disorder

M. najafy, M.A. mohammadyfar, S. dabiri, N. erfani, A.A. Kamary

Introduction: The aim of current study was comparison of the quality of life of the war veteran’s families with/without PTSD.

Method: In this purpose 300 war veterans' families were selected by clustering random sampling in Hamedan province. The measures of this research were quality of life questionnaire 28 items and demographic inventory.

Results: The results of independent samples t-test have shown the war veterans with PTSD reported lower scores on Physical Function, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, and mental health in comparison of the war veterans without PTSD. The spouses of the war veterans with PTSD also have reported lower quality of life in all subscales in comparison of the spouses of war veterans without PTSD. The children of the war veterans with PTSD have reported lower scores only on general health in comparison of the children of the war veterans without PTSD.

Conclusion: In respect to results, it appears that consideration of family's health in war veterans' families is necessary with special attention to war veterans with PTSD. However, planning, and instructional, therapeutic policies can be useful

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