[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Current Issue :: Search :: Submit an Article ::
:: Volume 13, Issue 2 (2021) ::
Iran J War Public Health 2021, 13(2): 155-162 Back to browse issues page
Fungemia and Fungal Diseases as Complication of COVID-19
Sh.K. AL-Taee 1, Z.M. AL-Jumaa2, E.S.Y. Al-Sarraj3, A.J. Hussein4, B. Abbas5
1- Department of Pathology and Poultry Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq , shahbaa_khal@uomosul.edu.iq
2- Department of Internal and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
3- Department of Pharmacy, Al-Noor University College, Mosul, Iraq
4- Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
5- Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
Abstract:   (2285 Views)
Introduction: The influence of coinfections on the morbidity and mortality of the new clinical syndrome coronavirus disease 2019 is unknown (COVID-19). Fungal agent of aspergillosis, mucormycosis, and candidiasis is the main superinfection that occurs as complicated to COVID-19; it may be related to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), diabetic disease, or long time exposure to a corticosteroid that cause immune-suppressive even cytokine storm. These factors act as risk factors for fungemia and fungal shock that causes severe inflammation, disturbances in blood circulation with sepsis, and damage in many organs. Therefore, This review aimed to identify the main fungal agent and explain the pathogenesis and pathological aspect as complicated to COVID-19.
Conclusion: The high rate of severe infection and mortality in patients with COVID-19's is thought to be due in part to a lack of natural immunity and raped viral replication in the lower respiratory tract, as well as superinfections, secondary infections, or coinfections, the mainly fungal agent that cause severe lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as cause damage and sepsis in other organs.
Keywords: COVID-19 [MeSH], Infection [MeSH], Fungal Complication [MeSH], Mycosis [MeSH],
Full-Text [PDF 1059 kb]   (40 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (9 Views)  
Article Type: Analytic Review | Subject: Health Service Standards of Veterans or Handicapped
Received: 2021/08/29 | Accepted: 2021/08/30 | Published: 2021/11/1
References
1. International committee on taxonomy of viruses. Coronaviridea [Internet]. Moscow: ICTV; 2011 [cited 2020 May 25]. Available from: https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_9th_report/positive-sense-rna-viruses-2011/w/posrna_viruses/222/coronaviridae. [Link]
2. AL-Taee SK, AL-Jumaa ZM, Ali FF. Coronavirus and COVID-19 disease in aquatic animals' aspects. Vet Pract. 2020;21(1):107-12. [Link]
3. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-207. [Link] [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2001316] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 30]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019. [Link]
5. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5]
6. Deshmukh V, Motwani R, Kumar A, Kumari C, Raza K. Histopathological observations in COVID-19: A systematic review. J Clin Pathol. 2021;74(2):76-83. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/jclinpath-2020-206995] [PMID]
7. Shanga J, Wana Y, Luoa C, Yea G, Genga Q, Auerbacha A, et al. Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2020;117(21):11727-34. [Link] [DOI:10.1073/pnas.2003138117] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Li F. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus. Antiviral Res. 2013;100(1):246-54. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.08.014] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Gralinski LE, Baric RS. Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections. J Pathol. 2015;235(2):185-95. [Link] [DOI:10.1002/path.4454] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: Causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Semin Immunopathol. 2017;39(5):529-39. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00281-017-0629-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Zhu Z, Lian X, Su X, Wu W, Marraro GA, Zeng Y. From SARS and MERS to COVID-19: A brief summary and comparison of severe acute respiratory infections caused by three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Respir Res. 2020;21(1):224. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12931-020-01479-w] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Li R, Pei S, Chen B, Song Y, Zhang T, Yang W, et al. Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Science. 2020;368(6490):489-93. [Link] [DOI:10.1126/science.abb3221] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Blaize M, Mayaux J, Nabet C, Lampros A, Marcelin A, Thellier M, et al. Fatal invasive aspergillosis and coronavirus disease in an immunocompetent patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(7):1636-7. [Link] [DOI:10.3201/eid2607.201603] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Pasero D, Sanna S, Liperi C, Piredda D, Branca GP, Casadio L, et al. A challenging complication following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case of pulmonary mucormycosis. Infection. 2020 Dec:1-6. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s15010-020-01561-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Alp E, Voss A. Ventilator associated pneumonia and infection control. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006;5:7-1. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/1476-0711-5-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Pedersen SF, Ho YC. SARS-CoV-2: A storm is raging. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(5):2202-5. [Link] [DOI:10.1172/JCI137647] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Duployez C, Le Guern R, Tinez C, Lejeune AL, Robriquet L, Six S, et al. Panton-valentine leukocidin-secreting staphylococcus aureus pneumonia complicating COVID-19. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(8):1939-41. [Link] [DOI:10.3201/eid2608.201413] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Seyedmousavi S, Bosco SMG, De Hoog S, Ebel F, Elad D, et al. Fungal infections in animals: A patchwork of different situations. Med Mycol. 2018;56(Suppl 1):165-87. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/mmy/myx104] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Sepulveda J, Westblade LF, Whittier S, Satlin MJ, Greendyke WG, Aaron JG, et al. Bacteremia and blood culture utilization during COVID-19 surge in New York city. J Clin Microbiol. 2020;58(8):00875-20. [Link] [DOI:10.1128/JCM.00875-20]
20. Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Liu H, Wu Y, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(5):475-81. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5]
21. He Y, Li W, Wang Z, Chen H, Tian L, Liu D. Nosocomial infection among patients with COVID-19: A retrospective data analysis of 918 cases from a single center in Wuhan, China. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;41(5):982-3. [Link] [DOI:10.1017/ice.2020.126] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. International society for infectious disease. Guide to infection control in the healthcare setting [Internet]. New York: International Society for Infectious Disease; 2018 [cited: Unknown]. Avaialable from: https://isid.org/guide/. [Link]
23. Veisi A, Bagheri A, Eshaghi M, Rikhtehgar MH, Kanavi MR, Farjad R. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis during steroid therapy in COVID-19 patients: A case report. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2021 Mar:1-6. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/11206721211009450] [PMID]
24. Buil JB, Meijer EFJ, Denning DW, Verweij PE, Meis JF. Burden of serious fungal infections in the Netherlands. Mycoses. 2020;63(6):625-31. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/myc.13089] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Silva LN, De Mello TP, De Souza Ramos L, Branquinha MH, Roudbary M, Dos Santos ALS. Fungal infections in COVID-19-positive patients: A lack of optimal treatment options. Curr Top Med Chem. 2020;20(22):1951-7. [Link] [DOI:10.2174/156802662022200917110102] [PMID]
26. Sharma S, Grover M, Bhargava S, Samdani S, Kataria T. Post coronavirus disease mucormycosis: A deadly addition to the pandemic spectrum. J Laryngol Otol. to the pandemic spectrum. 2021;135(5):442-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1017/S0022215121000992] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Francis JR, Villanueva P, Bryant P, Blyth CC. Mucormycosis in children: Review and recommendations for management. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2018;7(2):159-64. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/jpids/pix107] [PMID]
28. Song Y, Qiao J, Giovanni G, Liu G, Yang H, Wu J, et al. Mucormycosis in renal transplant recipients: Review of 174 reported cases. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:283. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12879-017-2381-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Bhat I, Beg MA, Athar F. A contemporary intimidation for COVID-19 patients coinfected with mucormycosis in India. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access. 2021;9(2):69-71. [Link] [DOI:10.15406/jbmoa.2021.09.00298]
30. Prakash H, Chakrabarti A. Global epidemiology of mucormycosis. J Fungi. 2019;5(1):26. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/jof5010026] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Scheckenbach K, Cornely O, Hoffmann TK, Engers R, Bier H, Chaker A, et al. Emerging therapeutic options in fulminant invasive rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37(3):322-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2009.09.001] [PMID]
32. Razem B, Dennai Y, Slimani F. Chronical rhino-orbital mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2021;82:105882. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.105882] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Kwon WJ, Zheng M, Kaur H, Magbual N, Dalai S. Superinfections and coinfections in COVID-19-separating the signal from the noise [Internet]. Unknown Publisher City: Medpage Today; 2020 (cited 2020 Jun 21). Available from: [Link]
34. Lai CC, Yu WL. COVID-19 associated with pulmonary aspergillosis: A literature review. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2021;54(1):46-53. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.jmii.2020.09.004] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Ezeokoli OT, Pohl CH. Opportunistic pathogenic fungal coinfections are prevalent in critically ill COVID-19 patients: Are they risk factors for disease severity. S Afr Med J. 2020;110(11):1081-5. [Link] [DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v110i11.15248]
36. Falcone M, Massetti AP, Russo A, Vullo V, Venditti M. Invasive aspergillosis in patients with liver disease. Med Mycol. 2011;49(4):406-13. [Link] [DOI:10.3109/13693786.2010.535030] [PMID]
37. Fu Y, Cheng Y, Wu Y. Understanding SARS-CoV-2-Mediated inflammatory responses: from mechanisms to potential therapeutic tools. Virol Sin. 2020;35(3):266-71. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s12250-020-00207-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
38. Clemons KV, Grunig G, Sobel RA, Mirels LF, Rennick DM, Stevens DA. Role of IL-10 in invasive aspergillosis: Increased resistance of IL-10 gene knockout mice to lethal systemic aspergillosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;122(2):186-91. [Link] [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2000.01382.x] [PMID] [PMCID]
39. Cai S, Sun W, Li M, Dong L. A complex COVID-19 case with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab. Clin Rheumatol. 2020;39(2):2797-802. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s10067-020-05234-w] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. Camargo JF, Bhimji A, Kumar D, Kaul R, Pavan R, Schuh A, et al. Impaired T cell responsiveness to interleukin-6 in hematological patients with invasive aspergillosis. Plos One. 2015;10(4):0123171. [Link] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123171] [PMID] [PMCID]
41. Johnson AK, Ghazarian Z, Cendrowski KD, Persichino JG. Pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2021;32:64-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.mmcr.2021.03.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
42. Pappas PG, Lionakis MS, Arendrup MC, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Kullberg BJ. Invasive candidiasis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4:18026. [Link] [DOI:10.1038/nrdp.2018.26] [PMID]
43. Nori P, Cowman K, Chen V, Bartash R, Szymczak W, Madaline T, et al. Bacterial and fungal coinfections in COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the New York city pandemic surge. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;42(1):84-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1017/ice.2020.368] [PMID] [PMCID]
44. Vila T, Sultan AS, Montelongo-Jauregui D, Jabra-Rizk MA. Oral candidiasis: A disease of opportunity. J Fungi. 2020;6(1):15. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/jof6010015] [PMID] [PMCID]
45. Ventoulis I, Sarmourli T, Amoiridou P, Mantzana P, Exindari M, Gioula G, et al. Bloodstream infection by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two COVID-19 patients after receiving supplementation of saccharomyces in the ICU. J Fungi. 2020;6(3):98. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/jof6030098] [PMID] [PMCID]
46. Sulik-Tyszka B, Snarski E, Nied'zwiedzka M, Augustyniak M, Myhre TN, Kacprzyk A, et al. Experience with saccharomyces boulardii probiotic in oncohaematological patients. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018;10(2):350-5. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s12602-017-9332-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
47. Cassone M, Serra P, Mondello F, Girolamo A, Scafetti S, Pistella E, et al. Outbreak of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subtype Boulardii Fungemia in patients neighboring those treated with a probiotic preparation of the organism. J. Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(11):5340-3. [Link] [DOI:10.1128/JCM.41.11.5340-5343.2003] [PMID] [PMCID]
48. De Armas Rodriguez Y, Wissmann G, Muller AL, Pederiva MA, Brum MC, Brackmann RL, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries. Parasite. 2011;18(3):219-28. [Link] [DOI:10.1051/parasite/2011183219] [PMID] [PMCID]
49. Jeican II, Inisca P, Gheban D, Tabaran F, Aluas M, Trombitas V, et al. COVID-19 and Pneumocystis Jirovecii pulmonary coinfection-the first case confirmed through autopsy. Medicina. 2021;57(4):302. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/medicina57040302] [PMID] [PMCID]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA


XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

AL-Taee S, AL-Jumaa Z, Al-Sarraj E, Hussein A, Abbas B. Fungemia and Fungal Diseases as Complication of COVID-19. Iran J War Public Health. 2021; 13 (2) :155-162
URL: http://ijwph.ir/article-1-1005-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 13, Issue 2 (2021) Back to browse issues page
مجله طب جانباز Iranian Journal of War and Public Health
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4343