Iranian Journal of War and Public Health

eISSN (English): 2980-969X
eISSN (Persian): 2008-2630
pISSN (Persian): 2008-2622


Iranian Journal of War & Public Health (IJWPH) have started to publish scholarly articles from 2008 and in these years, have tried to do its best in publishing good-quality articles with respect to research and publication ethics rules. IJWPH is supported by "Janbazan (Veterans) Medical and Engineering Research Center" (JMERC), as the first research center in the field of late onset complications and side effects of war on health in Iran, which have started studying in this field since 1989. Producing knowledge about the health consequences of war is one of the main missions of JMERC.
44.9 days
Submission to First Review
82 days
Submission to Accept
32.9 days
Accept to Publish
36.16 %
Acceptance Rate
Rahmatollah Hafezi, MD, MPH
Associate Professor, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Scientific Supporters
Janbazan Medical & Engineering Research Center

Social Support and it Association to Self-Efficacy among Users of Prostheses after Lower Limb Amputation

Marwa Salah Mutar, Arkan Bahlol Naji
Background: The research purpose was to investigate the self-efficacy and social support relationships among users of prostheses post-lower limb amputation. Understanding these relationships is crucial in comprehending how individuals adapt to life post-amputation and how their perceived capabilities and social interactions influence their rehabilitation and overall well-being.
Method: A correlational study conducted in the Baghdad City at Rusafa Health Department for the period from October 1, 2023 to March 24, 2024. The study sample consisted of 200 patients who were selected according to the non-probability sampling method. The questionnaire was validated by experts and its reliability was verified by a pilot study. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: The study showed that a significant proportion of lower limb amputees using prostheses had low self-efficacy (60%) and moderate social support (40.5%). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between social support and self-efficacy, particularly in managing fatigue (r = 0.133), coping with pain (r = 0.198), handling emotional distress (r = 0.172), addressing other symptoms (r = 0.180) and health problems, and overall self-efficacy (r = 0.173).
Conclusions: Interventions aimed at strengthening social support networks can significantly improve self-efficacy and general well-being in this population, ultimately promoting better adjustment and quality of life after amputation.
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Healthcare Services and its Association with Quality of Life among Amputees

Murtadha Mohammed Kassid , Zahid Jasim Mohammed
Objectives: Quality of life among amputee patients is a multifaceted concept influenced by various factors. The study aimed to assess quality of life among amputees and its associated socio-demographic characteristics.
Method: A descriptive correlational study design conducted in the Baghdad City at Al-Rusafa Health Directorate for the period from October 1st, 2023 to March 21st , 2024. The study sample consisted of 200 clients who were selected according to the non-probability sampling method. The questionnaire was validated by experts and its reliability was validated by a pilot study. Data was collected through interviews and analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: The results indicate that the average age of the participants was 49.68 years, and the majority were male (65.5%), married (63%), and had completed middle school (49.5%). 42.5% of retirees, most of whom have income between 300-600 Iraqi dinars (47%). Health conditions, especially in the lower extremities (73%), led to amputation, with an average of 14.71 years since amputation, and 48.5% since use of prostheses. The simple linear regression analysis indicate that greater healthcare services are associated with improved physical (p = .000), psychological (p = .000), social (p = .000), and overall quality of life (p = .000).
Conclusions: The need to provide adequate health care support to enhance the well-being of amputees. Thus, it is suggested that policymakers and healthcare professionals prioritize accessible, high-quality healthcare services tailored to meet the unique requirements of amputees.
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A Comparison of the isokinetic strength of knee muscles between normally sighted and visually impaired girls

akram eskandari, mostafa zarei, Amir hossein Barati, Fariba Mohammadi
Objective: strength of the knee flexor and extensor muscles is an important factor for balance and preventing falls. But limited studies have compared this strength in sighted and visually impaired girls. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the isokinetic strength of the knee muscles of sighed and visually impaired girls.
  Methodology: 22 female students with visual impairment and 33 sighted subjects matched based on age and body mass index participated in this study. Variables of maximum torque (normalized based on weight), average power and the ratio of agonist to antagonist muscles in knee flexion and extension at  three angular velocity 60, 120, 180 degrees per second as the isokinetic using the isokinetic device (Biodex System 4 ) in the two groups evaluated And the comparison was made. Independent t-test was used to evaluate of differences the inter-group.
Result: The results of the study showed that the maximum isokinetic torque of the knee extensor muscles of sighted people at angular velocities of 60, 120 and 180 in the dominant and non-dominant leg was significantly better than the visually impaired counterparts. However, the knee flexor muscles of individuals with visual impairment had significantly more maximum torque in the flexion movement at a velocity of 60 degrees per second (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in other velocities. Also, a significant difference was observed in the average power in the dominant and non-dominant leg of the 60, 120, and 180 degrees per second angular velocity
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Amputation-related Factors Influencing Activities of Daily Living among Amputees

Qasim Abbas Khyoosh Al-Eqabi, Shatha Mahmood Niazy, Mohammed Malih Radhi
This study aimed to determine amputation-related factors that affected the activities of daily living in persons with amputations. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Babylon Rehabilitation Centre from August 1st and November 20th, 2023. The study sample consists of 250 amputees using a standardized questionnaire. Data were collected through the interviews and analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistical approaches. Findings indicate significant portion of amputees (63.6%) exhibited poor activities of daily living, with factors such as age (p=0.000), gender (p= 0.008), amputation reasons (p= 0.000), site (p= 0.005), and duration (p=0.000) being predictive variables according to simple linear regression analysis. The study highlights a worrying prevalence of poor activities of daily living among amputees, with amputation-related factors serving as important predictors. Interventions aimed at enhancing ADL function among amputees must adopt a comprehensive approach that addresses the variety of factors that influence daily functioning.
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Ethical challenges in nuclear/radiation accidents: a scoping review

farid ghaffari, Simintaj Sharififar, zohreh parsania
Aims: Dealing with nuclear and radiological emergencies is a highly intricate task. Such accidents have a far-reaching impact on a large number of individuals and professionals. The management of nuclear accidents brings forth various ethical dilemmas. These ethical considerations revolve around the principles of respecting autonomy, non-harm, beneficence, and justice. The aim of this research is to analyze the ethical issues and suggest solutions to mitigate them in the event of nuclear and radiation accidents.
Methods:To conduct this study, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were used without time limit.
Findings: Bioethics is a field that seeks to determine the appropriate behaviors for individuals in various health-related circumstances. It considers factors such as health status and participation in healthcare. SHAMISEN, on the other hand, takes a comprehensive approach to health by considering all aspects of a situation. One of the most significant ethical dilemmas in nuclear or radiation accidents is how to protect vulnerable groups during disaster situations.
Conclusion: It is crucial to prevent further damage and loss and uphold basic ethical principles such as independence and equality in the management of nuclear and radiation accidents. Attention must also be paid to the social, ethical and psychological effects of the actions taken, and the local population should be involved in designing and implementing radiation risk management. However, there is currently no comprehensive and complete strategy for preparedness related to health surveillance of radiation accidents.
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Psychological Burdens among Wives of Disabled People in Light of Factors-related Disability

Zaman Ahmed Hrefish, Mohammed Abbas Hussein
Background: Spouses of people with disabilities often face unique psychological burdens due to challenges associated with caregiving and emotional support. This study aims to explore the psychological burdens faced by wives of people with disabilities, focusing on the disability-related factors that contribute to these challenges.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Babylon Rehabilitation Center for Disability from April 2nd to Jun 12th, 2024. The study sample consists of 250 wives of disabled people. Data were collected through the interviews and analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistical approaches.
Results: The results show that a significant majority (81.6%) of the wives of individuals with disabilities suffer from significant psychological burdens, and reveal that the psychological burdens of wives increase by 29,287 times with every decrease in monthly income. Likewise, the results show a 27.837-fold increase in burdens for those with severe disabilities, while the results indicate a 2.3409-fold increase with longer periods of disability. It confirms the results of statistically significant differences in psychological burdens based on the reasons for spouses’ disability (p=0.001) and the location of the disability (p=0.001).
Conclusions: The study sheds light on the stark reality experienced by wives of individuals with disabilities, and factors such as low monthly income, the severity of the disability, and the duration of the disability greatly exacerbate these burdens. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions to support these women, including financial assistance programmes, and psychological support services for families affected by disabilities.
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Comparison of plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction force between veterans with leg length discrepancy and healthy subjects during walking

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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to comparison of plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction force between veterans with leg length discrepancy and healthy subjects.

 Methods: This study was qusi- experimental in which 21 veterans with leg length discrepancy (1.5 to 3 centimeter) and 10 healthy subjects participated. Plantar pressure distribution of subjects was measured in five steps with emed platform. The data were analyzed with Paired- t test, One Way ANOVA and Symmetry Index (P≤ 0.05).

Results: While the symmetry Index (SI%) wasn’t shown much asymmetry in healthy subjects, there is lower contact time in the heel region of short limb, lower pressure and force of middle region of short limb, higher pressure of forefoot region of short limb and higher pressure and force of long foot.

Disscusion: Due to the results of this study, it seems that the primary contact time and weight acceptance of short foot is reduced that this procedure result in higher pressure of forefoot region of foot before push-off phase. Therefore, this is suggested that to dispel this problem, they should use of some orthoses that can make reasonably height to the heel region and therefore increase the contact time.  

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Quality of Life in blind veterans and matched sighted individuals

V. Nejati, E. Shiri

Background and Purpose: Promotion of quality of life is final goal of therapeutic care in physical and mental handicaps. The purpose of present study is comparing quality of life in blind veterans and matched normal healthy individuals 

Method: In present cross sectional study, 88 veterans with complete blindness are compared with 88 normal healthy age, gender and education matched individuals. SF36 was used for data gathering. Descriptive analysis and T- Test are used for analysis.

Result: Findings of present study show that blind veterans have higher grade in physical activity, vitality and mental health and mental health components and lower grades in general health, social role, emotional role, physical pain and physical component.

Conclusion: Enhancement of general health, social role, emotional role, physical pain and physical component should be considered for elevation of quality of life in blind veterans.

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The impacts of Skyroom software-based online prenatal classes on the prevention of stress, anxiety, and depression of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic


Aims: The covid-19 pandemic led to an increase in stress, anxiety, and depression among pregnant women and it was the cause of the cancellation of prenatal classes. This study aims to explore the impact of Skyroom software-based online prenatal classes on the prevention of the stress, anxiety, and depression of pregnant women in the context of Covid-19.

Materials & Methods: This is a randomized quasi-experimental intervention study (one-group pretest-posttest). The participants were 28 pregnant women at 16 to 20 weeks’ gestation with a low-risk pregnancy who were selected by simple random sampling. Six sessions of Skyroom software-based online prenatal classes were conducted for these women in the second trimester. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21), a self-report scale, were used to measure anxiety, stress, and depression. Participants complete the questionnaire before the intervention and one month after the last session. The data were analysed by SPSS version 20 software.

Findings: The results showed that the average scores of depression (P<0.01) and stress (P=0.02) in pregnant women significantly decreased one month after the online prenatal class, but no significant change was observed in the average score of anxiety (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The Skyroom software-based online prenatal classes was successful in lowering pregnant women's levels of stress and depression. Although more study needs to concentrate on pregnant women’s mental health by providing a more diverse population, the results from this study clearly show the importance of online support for pregnant women during the covid-19.
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ROC analyses of Plasma oxydative stress markers for Prediction of CKD complications of type 2 Diabetes

Samir Derouiche, ahmed abid, elhabib tahraoui
Background and aims: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the most important complications of diabetes. Many physiological and biochemical changes may cause these complications to appear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation oxidative stress for the diagnosis and  prediction of renal complication in type 2 diabetic patients.
Material & Methods: Sixty voluntary individuals were divided into two diabetic groups with and without CKD complication on which we assayed some biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Sensitivity and Specificity of Oxidative stress biomarkers in serum were estimated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design.
Findings: The results obtained in the present study clearly show that diabetes is confirmed by the hyperglycemia observed in all diabetic patients. The results obtained also show a significant increase (P <0.05) in the concentration of urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium and serum albumin in diabetic patients with nephropathy compared to diabetics. On the other hand, it was shown that a significant increase (P <0.05) in the concentration of MDA, GSH and  total thiol in the serum of diabetic patients compared to diabetics with complications of CKD. ROC assay analysis showed that serum GSH and MDA are predictive markers with high specificity (100%) of nephrotic complications of diabetes.
Conclusions: The present study reveals that diabetes induces metabolic and physiological alterations and an imbalance of oxidant / antioxidant status which can cause nephrotic complications suggesting the use of GSH, MDA as predictive markers for this complication of the disease.
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Melanoides tuberculate as bioindicator of the Heavy Metal contamination in water and sediment pollution of Euphrates River at Thi-Qar province- Iraq

Sanaa Talib Jawad, Qasim Muhammad Al-Taher, Ahmed F. Shihab
The aim of this study was determination the diversity of  the aquatic Gastropoda species and assessment heavy metals  of  water, sediment, soft tissue and shell Melanoides tuberculata  in Euphrates River at Thi-Qar province in southern Iraq with evaluate to  some of physical and chemical factors for river. The study was done during Summer and Winter seasons and samples were collected from of three study sites along Euphrates River. The samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for detection of heavy metals. The results were revealed that Melanoides  tuberculate , Physella acuta , Pisidium dubium, Melanopsis nodosa  and Corbicula fluminea  were found in the studied station in both season with high percentage ratio (37.73, 20.27, 6.58, 8.42, 26.98%) in summer season. Sediment has the highest mean concentration more than water. The heavy metals order was arranged as Zn < NiMelanoides  tuberculate higher than shell and they were arranged as Pb < Zn < NiMelanoides  tuberculate could accumulate the heavy metals in their metals then it could use as a bio-indicater for these metal for detection  the pollution in Euphrates river.
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Studing of genotype of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and late complications in the chemical victims Zardeh village in Kermanshah

Ph.D Ahmad Hamta, Hosna Fouladi Mansouri
Aims: Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent which targets skin, eyes and respiratory systems. Also, an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been studied in relation to cardiovascular diseases and lung fibrosis. In pulmonary fibrosis, D-allele frequency is higher than in the control population. So, it is possible that the ACE genotype influence the late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. Methods: The blood samples of thirty-four people of Zardeh village in Kermanshah who were exposed to mustard gas as a case study and thirty people in Eslam Abad Gharb in Kermanshah as the control group, were taken. Further information about the existence of respiratory, skin and ocular delayed effect of exposure to the mustard gas, were collected by questionnaires. ACE genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) and subsequent agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Incidence of respiratory, skin and eye complications were 52.9%, 50% and 44.1% respectively. Genotype frequencies for the three genotypes DD, ID and II in case group of people with pulmonary complications 0.5, 0.44 and 0.06 , and in people without this complications 0.12, 0.69 and 0.19 and in the control group, 0.3, 0.53 and 0.17 respectively. It was found that the DD genotype in patients with respiratory symptoms were higher than those without complications ( =6.22, p=0.045). Conclusion: These results suggested that DD genotype of ACE was significantly involved in genetic susceptibility to late complication of mustard gas.
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Comparison body subcutaneous fat veterans spinal cord injured athlete in sports disciplines various

mahdi saberi, mina khodaei, ahmad ebrahimi etri, seyed ali akbar hshemi javaheri
Abstract: Introduction: Increase in body fat percentage is one of the most important risk factors for disease and nutritional burden, as an independent is factor increasing the risk of mortality. Today's sedentary society, it has been the cause of many diseases in the veterans spinal cord are also due to certain health problems. Purpose: The aim of the present study and Comparison body subcutaneous fat veterans spinal cord injured athlete in sports disciplines various. Methodology: Therefore, this study on 60 veterans in 48 veteran spinal cord injury spinal cord injury athletes(12 athletes Archery, 12 athletes wheelchairrany, 12 athletes swimming, 12 athletes , wheelchair basketball) Were veterans and 12 non-athletes. To determine the amount of fat under the skin in the spinal cord of two points (sum of triceps and scapular muscles) were measured by caliper. for data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to test the assumptions in the study of inferential statistical methods such as analysis of variance ANOVA, post hoc test was used Froony bin. Research findings: The amount of subcutaneous fat bodies in the field of sports ‌ (athletes Archery wheelchairrany-swimming, wheelchair -basketball-non-athletes) there are significant differences.(p <0/05). Conclusion: Given these results, it can be seen swimming and wheelchairrany disciplines and combines these disciplines can be more effective in reducing weight in people with spinal cord injury.
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3-D Fluid-structural interaction biomechanical simulation of viscoelastic brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid with ICP consideration

Mr Amir Rouhollahi,Dr Mohammad Haghpanahi,Dr Farhad Farmanzad
Central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most important compartments controls the whole body. Inside that, there are ventricles full of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates all over the brain and spine areas. Incompressible fluid in interaction with approximately incompressible tissue in almost rigid volume called the skull makes this comparison remarkable. Slightly increase CSF volume or pressure inside the skull results in highly increase ICP pressure. In this article, the fluid-structural interaction between CSF and brain tissue is assumed in order to show the pressure and velocity distribution in different solution times. Having exported magnetic resonance images we used CATIA V5 software to make an initial 3D model, including wire frames of each slide. Then we put them together to assemble exact 3D model of the brain tissue and ventricles in it. After that we tried to simplify the geometry in order to be importable to FEA programs like ADINA. ANSYS design modeler and SOLIDWORKS were used to repair small edges and faces and make an appropriate geometry for analysis. Having completed the geometry, we imported that to ADINA software. We made boundary conditions just like the way they exist. Average inlet flow rate was equal to 500 ml per day. The outlet pressure was assumed to real ICP pressure rhythm. Finally, we compared our results to MRI studies and other simulations, which were done before.
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Review of therapeutic effect of trans cranial magnetic stimulation in psychological disorders

V. nejati

Human brain can be stimulated safely and non invasively by powerful magnetic field. This magnetic field causes a current in stimulated tissue, which stimulates the brain neurons. In psychological disorders, focal brain activity is observed in clinical syndromes. Application of trans-cranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic technique proposes to change the selective brain activities. Low frequency repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new method in evaluation and treatment of hyper excitability brain syndromes, which changes brain plasticity. In this review article, therapeutic effect of rTMS in some psychological disease such as depression, post traumatic stress disorder, epilepsy, obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia is discussed.

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Examining the effects of ’bad’ and ‘good’ fitting conditions supracondylar PTB socket on interface pressure and comfort of unilateral transtibial amputees: Case Study

N. Tafti, M.R. Safari, Gh. Aminian, P. Rezasoltani

Background: Changes in the volume and shape of the stump causes difficulties in maintaining A comfortable and exact fit. Improper fit causes pain, discomfort and movement between stump and socket. There is not enough document to identify how much volume fluctuation causes fitting problem . To identify and understand the relationship between the changes of interface pressure between stump and socket with mentally feeling of amputees in "good" and "bad" fitting conditions.

Method and Material: The study was conducted on two below knee amputees. The method has 2similar stages, SCS was evaluated at both stages with the difference that one was done in bad and other in good fitting condition. To examine stump-socket interface pressure at each stage,static tests with applying half and full body weight to the artifical limb and walking tests were done.

Results: With volume reduction, it seems adding several sock layers to improve fitting condition (force couple correction)imposes high interface pressure to patellar tendon and fibular head which lowers amputees feeling of comfort. Without adding sock layers,stump movement to distal causes unbearable pressure to the distal of tibia.

Conclusion: In static tests, interface pressure increased in good fitting condition at patellar tendon and popliteal region. Walking tests in good fitting condition showed less movement between stump and socket and less improper pressure. Using too many layers of socks to improve fitting causes intolareable interface pressure at regions such as petellar tendon and fibular head.

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survey of relationship between abnormalities of the spine and spirometric indices of spinal cord injury veterans

M. Saberi, A. Ebrahimi atri, S.A. Hashemi Javaheri, M. Mosaferi Ziaaldini, M. khodaei

Background & Purpose:   In addition to any disability, especially spinal cord injury level of sensory and motor performance of shows, other serious complications in other parts of the body, leaving lasting. . One of these complications, the spine is deformed. Many of the deformation of the spine, opening the chest to reduce this mode reduces the vital capacity and respiratory disorders, negative effects on the cardiovascular system and ultimately cause a change in the amount of their lung capacity is. The objective of this study, survey of relationship is between abnormalities of the spine (Lordosis, Kyphosis, scoliosis) and spirometric parameters (FEV1/FVC, FVC, FEV1, FEF75, PEF).

Materials & Methods:For this purpose, the present study was performed on 60 cases of spinal cord injury veterans And spirometric indices including FEV1/FVC, FVC, FEV1, FEF75, PEF was assessed using spirometry. For data analysis descriptive statistics were used and the test of Pearson inferential statistics were used.

Results: Based on survey results, a relation between Lordosis, scoliosis Kyphosis and spirometric indices, the rate and Kyphosis and  Lordosis abnormalities was significant
(P<0.05). But there is no significant difference in the rate of scoliosis (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Due to the complications of spinal deformity and subsequent loss of lung volume in the injured spinal cord injury, for deformity correction protocols and a regular exercise program continued to increase indicators lung is recommended.

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Relation between perceived social support and health promotion behaviors in chemical veterans in Ilam province on 2012-13

R. Chenary, A. Noroozi, R. Noroozi

Background & Purpose: Chemical attacks in war can make short term and long term personal, family and social damages and limited social relationships of victims as compared to ordinary people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and health promoting behaviors in chemical veteran in Ilam province 2012-13.

Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was performed in the entire moderate and severs chemical veterans, who they were covered by the Department of Veterans and Martyrs of Ilam province. Information was collected by using standard questionnaires for health-promoting behavior and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support (family, friends, and important people). The reliability and validity of these instruments was desirable. Inclusion criteria were percentage of disability with moderate and sever levels and enough physical strength to answer questions, and exclusion criteria were also lack of cooperation and have no permanent residence in Ilam province. After data collection, all data were analyzed by SPSS statistical soft ware and Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression.

Results: All of 239 veterans indicated that all of them were men with mean and standard deviation age 51.17± 8.87 years and there is a significant relation between all subscales of social support and health-promotion behavior subscales (p<0.05). Among the subscales of social support, friend support had the highest correlation with health-promoting behaviors (r= 0.391), and support from important people showed the lowest correlation (r= 0.367). The all regression models of health promotion behavior and its subscales were significant.

Conclusion: There is a relation between perceived social support especially friend support and health-promotion behaviors, therefore suggest that the friend as a resource support was used in design of educational programs.

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Frequency of Phantom Pain among patients with Spinal Cord Injury

Hadi Shojaei, Alireza Jafari, Shohre Valaei

Summary: Background: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) usually have permanent and often devastating neurologic deficits and disability and pain (1). According to the National Institutes of Health, "among neurological disorders, the cost to society of automotive SCI is exceeded only by the cost of mental retardation"(2). Neurogenic pain constitutes one of the enigmatic clinical syndromes faced by patients, clinicians, and researchers (3). Materials and Methods: Current observational descriptive cross-sectional survey is performed among 270 patients with spinal cord injuries including veterans and non-veteran disabled subjects in Tehran-City during 2005. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 37.8±12.2 years. 26.3% were female and 73.7% were male. 17.4% had spinal cord injury in cervical level, 41.5% thoracic, 38.1% lumbar, and 3% Quada Equina level. 76.3% had complete and 23.7% incomplete injuries. 19.3% had injury duration of less than 5 years, 11.9% between 5 to 10 years, and 68.9% upper than 10 years. Phantom pain below the lesion level was present in 89 patients (33%) that included 26% of veterans and 37% of non-veterans. There was a statistically significant association between age, marital status, and injury duration with having phantom pain (P< 0.05). Conclusion: it is concluded that frequency of phantom pain in current study is less than all of previous studies and our patients were totally resistant to analgesic treatments which may be due to physiopathologic basis of such pains in comparison with other pains due to spinal cord injuries.

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The relationship between basic need satisfaction and general healthof veteransofIsfahan’s AmiralmomeninHosptital

H. Salehi, A. Ghamarani, Z. Salehi

Background& Purpose: The onlyforcethat hastargetedhealth,physicalandmental. Satisfythebasicneedsrequiredto grow theconsistency,specificityandprovidepsychological well-being. The present study aims at analyzing the efficiency of basic need satisfaction in general in predicting the veterans’ general health at Isfahan’s AmiralmomeninHosptital.

Methods&Material:132 veterans were chosen randomly at AmiralmomeninHospital. They answered the questionnaires of the Basic Need Satisfaction (Basic Needs Satisfaction) and General Health (General Health Questioner ). In order to analyze the data, multivariate (step by step) regression analysis was used.

Result: The results indicated that satisfying the basic need satisfaction has correlation with the veterans’ general health (p<0.001) and also, the results indicated that among the psychological needs, satisfying the autonomy need and general health are predicted significantly (p<0.001).

Conclusion: To sum up, the results of the present study confirmed the efficiency of the basic needs satisfaction in predicting general health.

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Psychological- social consequences chemical bombardment of the Sardasht victims (a qualitative study)

B. Malkari, N. Karimian

Purpose: Aim of the present research is study of psychic and social consequences of chemical bombarding on the victims of Sardasht City by qualitative method. 

Material & Method: 15 men and 15 women of Sardasht City victims were selected as available sampling and they were interviewed in semi-structured manner. Method of qualitative research is interpretive. Results of the interviews were divided into several categories. 

Results: Results show that psychic and social consequences of chemical bombarding on the victims include complaints such as social complaints, psychic complaints, exhaustion problems, economical complaints, characteristic complaints, anger, no safety sensation, emotional interdependent, decrease of social interaction exist in victims. 

Conclusion: Results of the research demonstrate social and psychological problems have higher role in psychic- social consequences of chemical bombarding in ratio with other psychic- social consequences. Finally, we involved in limitations and providing several recommendations

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Localization of Hemoxigenase in the epithelium of human air way wall induced by sulfur mustard

M.R. nourani, L. Mirbagheri, M. Habibi Rodkenar, M. Ebrahimi, S. Yazdani, A.A. Imani Fouladi

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) as an effective chemical agent was used recently in the Iraq war against Iran. Currently more than 40,000 chemical casualty of war left with lung lesions caused by mustard gas.

This combination induce the production of oxygen free radicals are molecules that activate inflammatory processes. Heme Oxigenase is one of the important proteins that decrease the harmful effects of free radicals and involved in many cellular functions such as oxidant/antioxidant system balance in respiratory system.

Methods: 12 biopsy samples of the airway wall (8 chemical samples and 4 control samples) obtain by bronchoscopy. After fixation in Parafrmaldehyd 4%, 20 microns slices were prepared by Cryostat. The expression of HO1, a polymorphism of HO, by immunohistochemistry method in samples of veterans and control groups analysed and were compared.

Results: SM exposed samples were immunonegative for HO1 antibodies in compare to unexposed patients, while Normal ones expressed in high intensity in epithelium as a basal expression.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that this molecule play an important role in protecting cells against oxidative stress, including the poisoning of SM. So it concluded that the absence of this protective factor may be cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and continuity of problem.

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Validation of a Device for Registering Orthotic Wearing Time during the Laboratory Climate Tests on Normal Volunteers

N. Fallahian, F. Tabatabaei, M. Rahgozar , R. VahabKashani , M. Bahrami

Laboratory instrumentation of orthoses and prostheses can be used to objectively gain accurate information. In this study the measurement of orthosis wearing time during laboratory climate tests with normal volunteers were accomplished to determine the validity and reliability of the device for registering orthotic wearing time that was designed and fabricated in Iran. Orthosis wearing time is an important factor in orthotic treatment for spine disorders. A reliable and objective System for measuring orthosis wearing time currently is still lacking in Iran. After Developing such a device, our objective was to test the accuracy and validity of the device, Made in Iran which was designed to register spinal orthosis wearing time. The device had a force sensor mounted on a thoracolumbosacral orthosis pad to recorded orthosis wearing time. In an interval of 1 hour 5 Normal volunteers tested the device using a CASH orthosis. They donned the orthosis for a few minutes and doffed it meanwhile they recorded the time using a standard chronometer into the "Orthotic Wearing" form. After gaining the data one sample t-test was performed on all orthosis wearing-time intervals as recorded by the system and by the time tables filled by each of the 5 testers using a chronometer. The tests yielded 100 sensor trigger-events that is 50 times of orthotic wear (t=2.21, P=0.032). As indicated by the t-test analysis, the device for registering orthotic wearing time had accurately quantified the orthosis wearing-time intervals during the laboratory climate tests with normal volunteers.

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Investigating the Influence of training religious coping skillson resiliency, adaptability and stress management in veterans' spouses

S. Askaryan, M.J. Agheri , M.H. Hassan Zadeh

Background & Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study the effect of training religious coping skills on Resiliency and adaptability components and stress management in veterans' spouses.

Methods & Materials: This study is quasi-experimental. Statistical population included 70 veterans' spouses whose children were studying in Shahed primary school of Mashhad in district5, in 1392-1391education year. For sampling, Available method was used and all the testees were given Connor & Davidson Resilience Questionnaire and bar-on emotional intelligence Questionnaire for investigating two components.30 spouses, results who gained the lowest score in both tests, were selected after the Survey. The testees were divided to two Equal experiment and control groups, through random assignment. Then experiment group was provided religious coping skills training with the Islamic approach in10 sessions. Finally, a post-test was taken from both groups.

Results: The data analysis was performed, for obtaining covariance and Pearson correlation test. Results show a meaningful measure of 0.01 and variables showed direct relationship to the testing component in Pearson correlation test therefore it can be concluded that training of religious coping skills may be useful for veterans' spouses on their resiliency, adaptability.

Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, It is concluded that training spouses of veterans, religious coping skills can be effective in Improving their level of mental health and empowering them to deal with their problems.

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Energy Storing and -Revealing Prosthetic Feet A Review Study

N. Fereshtenejhad , F. Pol , T. Tahmasebi, A. Ebrahimi

Aims: Since 1990 a new generation of prosthetic feet as "energy storing" in order to improve the performance and mobility of amputees entered to the markets. The aim of this study was to expansion and explanation of the concept of energy and terms relating to energy transfer as well as an overview of energy storing and returning measurement of prosthetic. 

Information & Methods: In this review study, a systematic search of electronic databases, Google Scholar and PubMed was done and papers published from 1950 to 2013 were studied. Key words used were included various combinations of energy analysis, ESAR prosthetic feet and their synonym terms.

Findings: The results obtained from articles classified and examined in the three domains of concepts of energy and energy-related terms, methods of energy analysis in the prosthetic feet and functional classifications and naming of the feet enable to energy storing.

Conclusion: Analysis of the structure and components of prosthesis make it possible to understand how it works. One of the major issues in the analysis of energy transfer of prosthesis is the proper amount of absorption and energy release and the effect of it on amputee. Optimal performance and health of amputee is effective in designing these kinds of prosthesis.

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Quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome referred to clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran

E. khatibi aghda , M.T. Hollisaz, M. Asheghan, A. Shamseddini, V. Sobhani, S. Labbaf

Background & Purpose: Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic disease with unknown etiology musculoskeletal pain and tender points throughout the body are numerous. The aim of this study was to measure quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome that referred to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic in Baqiyatallah Hospital.

Methods & Materials: Patients that referred to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic by a trained physician were asked about diffuse chronic pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, age, body mass index, level of education and number of children. To assess quality of life, 36-SF questionnaire was used. Also to assess pain, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used. The same physician did a thorough physical examination with special attention to the tender points in order to diagnose fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria.

Results: In the study of 59 patients referred to the Baqiyatallah hospital, the findings showed that there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and pain (p=0.002), age (p=0.01), body mass index (p=0.04) and morning stiffness (p=0.001). However, there is no statistically significant relationship between level of education and quality of life (p=0.09). Also, according to the finding, all quality of life components, especially the physical components, is affected by Fibromyalgia syndrome.

Conclusion: According to the study findings, the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients affected by multiple factors such as diffuse chronic pain, body mass index, age, morning stiffness.

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The Comparison of the quality of life of the war veterans families with/without Post traumatic Stress Disorder

M. najafy, M.A. mohammadyfar, S. dabiri, N. erfani, A.A. Kamary

Introduction: The aim of current study was comparison of the quality of life of the war veteran’s families with/without PTSD.

Method: In this purpose 300 war veterans' families were selected by clustering random sampling in Hamedan province. The measures of this research were quality of life questionnaire 28 items and demographic inventory.

Results: The results of independent samples t-test have shown the war veterans with PTSD reported lower scores on Physical Function, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, and mental health in comparison of the war veterans without PTSD. The spouses of the war veterans with PTSD also have reported lower quality of life in all subscales in comparison of the spouses of war veterans without PTSD. The children of the war veterans with PTSD have reported lower scores only on general health in comparison of the children of the war veterans without PTSD.

Conclusion: In respect to results, it appears that consideration of family's health in war veterans' families is necessary with special attention to war veterans with PTSD. However, planning, and instructional, therapeutic policies can be useful

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Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies of Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Veterans

Y. Naderi , A.R. Moradi , J. Hasani , S. Noohi

Introduction: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on The Emotional Schema & Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies of patients suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Method: 6 patients from the clients of psychiatric clinic of Baqiyatallah hospital, were selected through available sampling, matched together and then divided into 3 groups (Emotional Schema Therapy combined with Medications, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy combined with Medications & Medications) Patients were examined 5 & 3 times by Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS) and the Short Form of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-18) and The Persian versions of the Impact of Event Scale-Revise (IES-R). To analyze the data, indexes of effect size, cohen’s d, process changes, slope and interpretation of ups & downs in charts were employed.

Result:  After treatment, scores of patients who Emotional Schema Therapy received showed decrease in Negative Emotional Schema(Rumination, guilt, uncontrollability) & Maladaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation strategies (Self-blaming, Rumination, Catastrophizing) additionally, in some Adaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation strategies (Positive refocusing, Refocusing on planning, Positive Reappraisal)and Adaptive Emotional Schema (higher values, acceptance, consensus, Comprehensibility) an increase was observed.

Conclusion: Emotional Schema Therapy via targeting directly mechanisms of pathological Emotional Schemas & Maladaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation strategies. can be appropriate choice for treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

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The effect of lateral wedge insole with and without subtalar strap on vertical component of ground reaction force in knee osteoarthritis

E. Esfandiari, M. Kamyab, H. Yazdi, N. Foroughi, F. Navab Motlagh

Objective: The effects of lateral wedge insoles with and without subtalar strap on vertical component of ground reaction force were compared. Methods: Twenty five patients aged over 40 years with grades I or II of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis based on Kellgrene and Lawrence grading system were participated in this study. They were tested in 3 conditions while walking in a 3-meter walkway: bare foot, lateral wedge insole and lateral wedge insole with subtalar strap. Three successful trials were recorded in each condition. Gait analysis was performed to compare the immediate effect of lateral wedge insole with and without subtalar strap on vertical component of ground reaction force.

Results: There was significant effect of lateral wedge insole with subtalar strap on second peak of vertical ground reaction force related to lateral wedge insole and without insole conditions. But no significant effect of lateral wedge insole with and without subtalar strap was found on first peak of vertical ground reaction force and walking speed.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that lateral wedge insole can reduce second peak of vertical ground reaction force. Also it was understood lateral wedge insole with subtalar strap might be more efficacious than lateral wedge insole in mild knee osteoarthritis patients.

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Correlation between mindfulness and executive functions in blinds veterans

V. Nejati

  Background and Aim : Mindfulness is ability of self regulating attention and direct it for task. The purpose of present study is evaluation of correlation between mindfulness and executive function in blind veterans.

  Materials & Methods : we evaluate 93 blind veterans with Dys executive function and mindfulness questionnaire. Pearson Correlation Test was used to evaluation.

  Results : findings show significant correlation between mindfulness and executive function specially inhibition and memory (P<0.01) and arousal (P<0.01) subscale. No correlation found in intentionality and hyperactivity subscale (P>0.05).

  Conclusion : Cause of correlation between mindfulness and inhibition, arousal and memory is common structural and functional overlap. Mindfulness can be used as a proper predictor of this subscale of executive functions.

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Viewpoints of Veterans Affected by Psychological Disorders towards usage of telemental services for War Veterans

M. Ahmadi, K. Bahaadinbeigy, T. noori

Background & Purpose: The use of telemedicine in military capabilities, access to specialized medical services, resulting in a continuing care for veterans is possible. This study aimed to investigate psychological warfare point of using mental health systems has been done remotely for war veterans.

Methods & Materials: This cross - sectional study was conducted in 2013 A questionnaire was designed and standardized by receiving comments from telemedicine experts and psychiatrist. The researcher personally visited respondents, thus 100% data were collected. Data analysis using 17.0 SPSS software and descriptive statistics were performed.

Results: Veterans on the effectiveness and necessity of mental health service use remote stressed. And concerns about access to a computer, provided the drug, the need for further training and active involvement of families.

Conclusion: It is clear that the Telemental health is practical solutions to meet the mental health needs of veterans. .In the discussion, such as user training requirements, reliability, confidentiality and other legal policies should be considered. Experiences of other countries indicate the success of this type of service needs assessment, feasibility and planning is correct.

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Fertility and sexual function after spinal cord injury

M. Soroush , E. Modirian , H. Zamani , S. Attari

Following damage to spinal cord, sexual function and fertility of the survivors would greatly be affected and using assistive reproductive therapies would be inevitable. During a 2-year program, 1429 SCI survivors of Iran-Iraq War were thoroughly examined by urologists. Patients' demographic characteristics and information relevant to sexual and fertility status as date of marriage, number of children and use of assistive reproductive therapies, were recorded. The mean age of the survivors was 37.9±8.5 y/o and the mean period after injury was 14.6±2.9 years. 87.4% of the subjects suffered from paraplegia and 98.4% of them were men. Sexual dysfunction reported in 69.9% of the subjects while fertility problems observed in 58.5%. 23.7% of the cases had no child and 30.4% had a single one. Success rate following IUI, IVF and were 21.9%, 24.1% and 20% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no relation between level of spinal cord injury and fertility. Relatively high success rate after assistive reproductive therapies would maintain the hope of bearing a child after Spinal Cord Injury.

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Comparative of Mental Health Disabled People of Athletic and Non-Athletic

H. Bakhshayesh, F. Bahmani, M. Kamali

Background: In the field of exercise and mental health was already on the perception that sport is beneficial for physical health. Today physical exercise can also be effective in promoting mental health.

Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare mental health of athletic and non-athletic disabled people in Arak city.

Materials and Method: A descriptive-analytical study and cross method, was done to evaluate the mental. Disabled man in the entire city was considered as a population study. Samples were selected randomly into two groups with 120 athletes (60) and non-athletes (60). Mental health of participants was assessed by GHQ-28. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test was used for data analysis.

Results: Findings of study showed significant differences between mental health of athletic and non-athletic disabled people. Disabled people that participant in physical activity were in better mental health situation than the non-athletic disabled people.

Conclusion: According to sport effective role on mental health of people, especially disabled people recommend responsible organizations for making the bed than the rest of the act.

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Quality of services provided to veterans referred to a branch of the armed forces in Hamadan

M.K. Bahadori, R. Zaboli, A. Ghanbari

Background & Purpose: The services quality problems arise in organizations that do not pay attention to understanding of the customer needs and don’t try to meet them. This goal of this study was to Survey of services quality provided in branch of the armed forces in Hamadan from viewpoint of veterans using by SERVQUAL method in 2013.

Methods & Materials: This study was descriptive and analytical Study. Sample size included 100 people. Standard SERVQUAL questionnaire with 26 questions were conducted to collect data. The veterans answered the questions in exceptions section about of ideal or optimal situation and about current situation in perception section and based on these results, the gap quality were determined. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software and descriptive and analytical statistical including frequency tables and standard deviation.

Results: Based on result, exceptions related staffs in whole dimensions were upward on current situation. The highest mean of scores in expectation sector was related to the assurance of services warrantee (3.93 ±1.02) and the lowest mean of scores was related of empathy (3.63± 1.05).

Conclusion: Services organizations including of insurance branch must make effort to understand the needs and demands of customers fully. Sometimes these organizations recognize what is important for customers by themselves. Inappropriate diagnosis of needs caused of customer dissatisfaction and increases of distance between real and ideal satisfaction. Using servqual model and quality assessment from viewpoint of customer, with proper planning will be improving quality of services.

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