[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Current Issue :: Search :: Submit an Article ::
:: Volume 12, Issue 1 (2020) ::
Iran J War Public Health 2020, 12(1): 19-27 Back to browse issues page
Effect of a Corrective Exercise Program Based on Scapular Stability on Upper Cross Syndrome in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes
A. Maarouf 1, A.A. Norasteh2, H. Daneshmandi2, A. Ebrahimi-Atri3
1- Sports Injuries & Corrective Exercise Department, School of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran , abed.maaroof93@Gmail.com
2- Sports Injuries & Corrective Exercise Department, School of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3- Sports Injuries & Corrective Exercise Department, School of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract:   (3723 Views)
Aims: Wheelchair basketball athletes, as a group of people with spinal cord injury, are at risk for upper cross syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a corrective exercise program based on scapular stability on upper cross syndrome in wheelchair basketball athletes.
Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study that was conducted in 2017-2018, 24 veteran and handicapped wheelchair basketball athletes who had spinal cord injury with upper cross syndrome in Mashhad were selected by purposive sampling method and divided into control (n=12) and case (n=12) groups. A corrective exercise program based on scapular stability were administered to the case group for 8 weeks. Camera and flexible ruler tools were used to measure forward head, rounded shoulder and kyphosis, respectively. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 23 software using independent t-test, paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey’s post hoc test.
Findings: The severity of forward head, rounded shoulder and kyphosis abnormalities was less in class 3 than in class 1 and 2. There was a significant difference between the case and control groups after training in all three forward head, rounded shoulder, and kyphosis abnormalities (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The corrective exercises based on scapula stability are one of the most useful training methods for restoring muscle balance and preventing and correcting abnormalities in wheelchair basketball athletes.
Keywords: Basketball, Wheelchair, Upper Limb Deformities, Head, Kyphosis, Exercise
Full-Text [PDF 487 kb]   (537 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Rehabilitation of Veterans or Handicapped
Received: 2019/08/10 | Accepted: 2020/01/20 | Published: 2020/03/16
English Expanded Abstract [HTML 21 KB]  (48 Download)
1. Klenck C, Gebke K. Practical management: common medical problems in disabled athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(1):55-60. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3180302587]
2. Goosey-Tolfrey V. Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32(26):2237-43. [DOI:10.3109/09638288.2010.491577]
3. Vanlandewijck YC, Verellen J, Tweedy S. Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(10):1089-96. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2011.576694]
4. Dec KL, Sparrow KJ, McKeag DB. The physically-challenged athlete: medical issues and assessment. Sports Med. 2000;29(4):245-58. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200029040-00003]
5. Miyahara M, Sleivert GG, Gerrard DF. The relationship of strength and muscle balance to shoulder pain and impingement syndrome in elite quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players. Int J Sports Med. 1998;19(3):210-4. [DOI:10.1055/s-2007-971906]
6. Saberi M, Ebrahimi Atri A, Hashemi Javaheri SAA, Khodaei M. Comparison of line of the spine veterans spinal cord injured athletes in The various sports groups. Iran J War Public Health. 2012;4(16):13-20. [Persian]
7. Marouf A. The survey of spinal alignment and physical fitness of disabled with spinal cord injuries [Dissertation]. Rasht: Guilan University; 2010. [Persian]
8. Bergström EMK, Short DJ, Frankel HL, HendersonNJ, Jones PRM. The effect of childhood spinal cord injury on skeletal development: a retrospective study. Spinal Cord. 1999;37:838-46. [DOI:10.1038/sj.sc.3100928]
9. Minkel JL. Seating and mobility considerations for people with spinal cord injury. Phys Ther. 2000;80(7):701-9. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/80.7.701]
10. Hastings JD, Fanucchi ER, Burns SP. Wheelchair configuration and postural alignment in persons with spinal cord injtry. Arch Pbys Med Rebabil. 2003;84(4):528-34. [DOI:10.1053/apmr.2003.50036]
11. Janda V, Grant R. Muscles and cervical pain syndromes. In: Grant R, editor. Physical therapy of cervical and thoracic spine. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1988. p. 153-66.
12. Clark M, Lucett S. NASM essentials of corrective exercise training. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams Wilkins Publication; 2010. p. 9-75.
13. Teixeira FA, Carvalho GA. Reliability and validity of thoracic kyphosis measurements using flexicurve method. Braz J Phys Ther. 2007;11(3):199-204.
14. Sepehrifar S, Moezi A, Soleimani Dodaran M. The effect of 6-week exercise therapy protocol on scapular position, head, shoulder and thoracic posture in patients with shoulder overuse syndrome. J Nurse Physician War. 2014;2(3):53-63. [Persian]
15. Rostami Zalani F, Ahanjan S, Roshani S, Bagherian Dehkordi S, Falah AR. Comparison of the effects of three corrective exercise methods on the quality of life and forward head of men with upper cross syndrome. J Paramed Sci Rehabil. 2019;8(1):26-36. [Persian]
16. Cheshmi S, Alizadeh MH, Barati AH, Akouchekian M. the effect of six weeks corrective exercise on upper-crossed syndrome of overhead athletes. J Appl Exerc Physiol. 2018;14(27):153-66. [Persian]
17. Daneshmandi H, Mogharrabi Manzari M. The effect of eight weeks comprehensive corrective exercises on upper crossed syndrome. Sci J Manag Syst. 2014;12(7):75-86. [Persian]
18. Hajihosseini E, Norasteh AA, Shamsi A, Daneshmandi H. The comparison of effect of three programs of strengthening, stretching and comprehensive on upper crossed syndrome. J Res Rehabil Sci. 2015;11(1):51-61. [Persian]
19. Roshani S, Mahdavinejad R, Ghanizadeh N. The effect of a NASM-based training protocol on upper cross syndrome in paraplegia spinal cord injury patients. J Ilam Univ Med Sci. 2018;25(6):73-85. [Persian] [DOI:10.29252/sjimu.25.6.73]
20. Thigpen CA, Padua DA, Michener LA, Guskiewicz K, Giuliani C, Keener JD, et al. Head and shoulder posture affect scapular mechanics and muscle activity inoverhead tasks. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010;20(4):701-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jelekin.2009.12.003]
21. Morningstar M. Cervical curve restoration and forward head posture reduction for the treatment of mechanical thoracic pain using the pettibon corrective and rehabilitative procedures. J Chiropr Med. 2002;1(3):113-5. [DOI:10.1016/S0899-3467(07)60013-5]
22. Pescatello LS. ACSM's guidelines for exercise
23. testing and prescription. 9th Edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health; 2014.
24. Seidi F, Rajabi R, Ebrahimi E, Alizadeh MH, Daneshmandi H. The effect of a 10-week selected corrective exercise program on postural thoracic kyphosis deformity. J Sport Med. 2013;5(1):5-22. [Persian]
25. Ruivo RM, Pezarat-Correia P, Carita AI. Intrarater and interrater reliability of photographic measurement of upper-body standing posture of adolescents. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015;38(1):74-80. [DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.10.009]
26. Harborview Medical Center. Gym based exercises for SCI [Internet]. Washington: University of Washington Medicine; 2013 [cited 2018 Feb 16]. Available from: http://sci.washington.edu/info/forums/reports/exercise_2013.asp.
27. Page P, Frank CC, Lardner R. Assessment and treatment of muscle imbalance: the Janda approach. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2010.
28. Kebaetse M, McClure P, Pratt NA. Thoracic position effect on shoulder range of motion, strength, and threedimensional scapular kinematics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(8):945-50. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90088-6]
29. Ryan SD, Fried LP. The impact of kyphosis on daily functioning. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45(12):1479-86. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb03199.x]
30. Lin VW, Bono, Cardenas DD, Frost FS, Hammond MC, Lindblom LB, et al, editors. Spinal cord medicine, principles and practice, 2nd Edition. New York: Demos
31. Medical Publishing; 2010. p. 90.
32. Diab AA, Moustafa IM. The efficacy of forward head correction on nerve root function and pain in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy a randomized trial. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26(4):351-61. [DOI:10.1177/0269215511419536]
33. Moore MK. Upper crossed syndrome and its relationship to cervicogenic headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004;27(6):414-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2004.05.007]
34. Hertling D, Kessler RM. Management of common musculoskeletal disorders. Physical therapy principles and methods. 4th Edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams Wilkins Publication; 2006. p. 231.
35. Najafi M, Behpoor N. The effects of a selective corrective program on the scapula and shoulder joint posture in girls with rounded shoulder. J Sport Med. 2013;4(2):31-47. [Persian]
36. Kotteeswaran K, Rekha K, Anandh V. Effect of stretching and strengthening shoulder muscles in protracted shoulder in healthy individuals. Int J comput Appl. 2012;2(2):111-18.
37. Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Soderberg GL. Surface electromyographic analysis of exercises for the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33(5):247-58. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2003.33.5.247]
38. Falla D, Jull G, Russell T, Vicenzino B, Hodges P. Effect of neck exercise on sitting posture in patients with chronic neck pain. Phys Ther. 2007;87(4):408-17. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060009]
39. Falla D, O'Leary S, Fagan A, Jull G. Recruitment of the deep cervical flexor muscles during a postural-correction exercise performed in sitting. Man Ther. 2007;12(2):139-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2006.06.003]
40. McClure PW, Bialker J, Neff N, Williams G, Karduna A. Shoulder Function and 3- Dimensional Kinematics in People With Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Before andAfter a 6 Week Exercise Program. Phys Ther. 2004;84(9):832-48. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/84.9.832]
41. O'Leary S, Falla D, Jull G, Vicenzino B. Muscle specificity in tests of cervical flexor muscle performance. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2007;17(1):35-40. [DOI:10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.10.006]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Maarouf A, Norasteh A, Daneshmandi H, Ebrahimi-Atri A. Effect of a Corrective Exercise Program Based on Scapular Stability on Upper Cross Syndrome in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes. Iran J War Public Health. 2020; 12 (1) :19-27
URL: http://ijwph.ir/article-1-850-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2020) Back to browse issues page
مجله طب جانباز Iranian Journal of War and Public Health
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4341