Iranian Journal of War and Public Health

eISSN (English): 2980-969X
eISSN (Persian): 2008-2630
pISSN (Persian): 2008-2622
JMERC
0.3
Volume 15, Issue 3 (2023)                   Iran J War Public Health 2023, 15(3): 279-284 | Back to browse issues page

Print XML PDF HTML Full-Text (HTML)


History

How to cite this article
Shirvani H, Sobhani V, Kazemipour M, Mozafaripour E, Yaghoubitajani Z. Role of Chronic Pain and Physical Fitness in Predicting Susceptibility to Musculoskeletal Injuries in Navy Personnel. Iran J War Public Health 2023; 15 (3) :279-284
URL: http://ijwph.ir/article-1-1331-en.html
Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rights and permissions
1- Exercise Physiology Research Center Research, Institute for Life Style, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran
3- Department of Health and Sport Rehabilitation, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
* Corresponding Author Address: Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Persian Gulf Highway 5km, Rasht, Iran. Postal Code: 4199613776 (e.mozafaripour@yahoo.com)
Abstract   (560 Views)
Aims: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSKI) are known as one of the most important leading causes of loss of duty time among military personnel. A practical approach to reducing the risk of MSKI and related consequences seems beneficial to identify at-risk personnel. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether chronic pain and physical fitness can predict scores of FMS tests in Navy personnel.
Instrument & Methods: 125 active-duty Navy personnel aged 18-38 participated in this cross‐sectional study at Bandar Abbas City, Iran, in 2021 winter. Susceptibility to MSKI was assessed using Functional Movement Screening, and Physical Fitness was measured using 60-second push-up and sit-up, deep squat jump, and Cooper's 12-minute run tests. Chronic pain intensity was evaluated using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire-Extended and Visual Analog Scale, respectively. A multiple linear regression model was applied to predict FMS scores.
Findings: The mean age, height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were 28.5±8.5 years, 178.9±10.2cm, 76.2±9.5kg, and 24.7±3.3kg/m2, respectively. The sit-up (p=0.002), Cooper's test distance (p=0.001), and chronic pain index (p=0.04) predicted 83% of the variance of the FMS score significantly. 
Conclusion: Sit-up number, Cooper test score, and chronic pain are the predictors of musculoskeletal injuries of Navy active personnel that predicate 83% of the variance of the functional movement screening test.
 
Keywords:

References
1. Mikkelsen K, Stojanovska L, Polenakovic M, Bosevski M, Apostolopoulos V. Exercise and mental health. Maturitas. 2017;106:48-56. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.09.003]
2. Nindl BC, Castellani JW, Warr BJ, Sharp MA, Henning PC, Spiering BA, et al. Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(11):2655-72. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00421-013-2591-1]
3. Nindl BC, Jones BH, Van Arsdale SJ, Kelly K, Kraemer WJ. Operational physical performance and fitness in military women: Physiological, musculoskeletal injury, and optimized physical training considerations for successfully integrating women into combat-centric military occupations. Mil Med. 2016;181(suppl 1):50-62. [Link] [DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00382]
4. Knapik J, Montain S, McGraw S, Grier T, Ely M, Jones B. Stress fracture risk factors in basic combat training. In J Sports Med. 2012;33(11):940-6. [Link] [DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1311583]
5. Molloy JM, Pendergrass TL, Lee IE, Chervak MC, Hauret KG, Rhon DI. Musculoskeletal injuries and United States Army readiness part I: overview of injuries and their strategic impact. Mil Med. 2020;185(9-10):e1461-71. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/milmed/usaa027]
6. Campbell KE, Parent EC, Crumback DJ, Hebert JS. Predicting upper quadrant musculoskeletal injuries in the military: A cohort study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2022;54(2):337-44. [Link] [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002789]
7. Lisman P, O'Connor FG, Deuster PA, Knapik JJ. Functional movement screen and aerobic fitness predict injuries in military training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(4):636-43. [Link] [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31827a1c4c]
8. Bock C, Orr RM. Use of the functional movement screen in a tactical population: A review. J Mil Veterans Health. 2015;23(2):33-42. [Link]
9. Army U. FM 7-22 army physical readiness training. Washington: Headquarters, Department of the Arm; 2012. [Link]
10. Cocke C, Dawes J, Orr RM. The use of 2 conditioning programs and the fitness characteristics of police academy cadets. J Athl Train. 2016;51(11):887-96. [Link] [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-51.8.06]
11. Orr RM, Pope R. Optimizing the physical training of military trainees. Strength Cond J. 2015;37(4):53-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1519/SSC.0000000000000148]
12. Jones BH, Hauschild VD. Physical training, fitness, and injuries: lessons learned from military studies. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:S57-S64. [Link] [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001115]
13. Sackett PR, Mavor AS. Assessing fitness for military enlistment. Washington: National Academies Press; 2006. [Link]
14. Tomes CD, Sawyer S, Orr R, Schram B. Ability of fitness testing to predict injury risk during initial tactical training: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Inj Prev. 2020;26(1):67-81. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043245]
15. Jones BH, Hauret KG, Dye SK, Hauschild VD, Rossi SP, Richardson MD, et al. Impact of physical fitness and body composition on injury risk among active young adults: A study of army trainees. J Sci Med sport. 2017;20:S17-22. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.015]
16. Côté JN, Bement MKH. Update on the relation between pain and movement: Consequences for clinical practice. Clin J Pain. 2010;26(9):754-62. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181e0174f]
17. Meyr AJ, Saffran B. The pathophysiology of the chronic pain cycle. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2008;25(3):327-46. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.cpm.2008.02.002]
18. Szeto GPY, Straker LM, O'Sullivan PB. Neck-shoulder muscle activity in general and task-specific resting postures of symptomatic computer users with chronic neck pain. Man Ther. 2009;14(3):338-45. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2008.05.001]
19. Hernandez A, Gross K, Gombatto S. Differences in lumbar spine and lower extremity kinematics during a step down functional task in people with and people without low back pain. Clin Biomech. 2017;47:46-52. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2017.05.012]
20. Schmidt E, Harris-Hayes M, Salsich GB. Dynamic knee valgus kinematics and their relationship to pain in women with patellofemoral pain compared to women with chronic hip joint pain. J Sport Health Sci. 2019;8(5):486-93. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2017.08.001]
21. Vandenbroucke JP, Von Elm E, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and elaboration. Gaceta Sanitaria. 2009;23(2):158e1-28. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.gaceta.2008.12.001]
22. Bair MJ, Wu J, Damush TM, Sutherland JM, Kroenke K. Association of depression and anxiety alone and in combination with chronic musculoskeletal pain in primary care patients. Psychosom Med. 2008;70(8):890. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318185c510]
23. Nayback-Beebe AM, Yoder LH, Goff BJ, Arzola S, Weidlich C. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic frequency therapy on health-related quality of life in military service members with chronic low back pain. Nurs Outlook. 2017;65(5):S26-33. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.outlook.2017.07.012]
24. Orishimo KF, Kremenic IJ, Mullaney MJ, McHugh MP, Nicholas SJ. Adaptations in single-leg hop biomechanics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18(11):1587-93. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00167-010-1185-2]
25. del Pozo-Cruz B, Gusi N, Adsuar JC, del Pozo-Cruz J, Parraca JA, Hernandez-Mocholí M. Musculoskeletal fitness and health-related quality of life characteristics among sedentary office workers affected by sub-acute, non-specific low back pain: A cross-sectional study. Physiotherapy. 2013;99(3):194-200. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.physio.2012.06.006]
26. Lin JJ, Chen WH, Chen PQ, Tsauo JY. Alteration in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2010;35(11):1151-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181cd5923]
27. Farr S, Kranzl A, Pablik E, Kaipel M, Ganger R. Functional and radiographic consideration of lower limb malalignment in children and adolescents with idiopathic genu valgum. J Orthop Res. 2014;32(10):1362-70. [Link] [DOI:10.1002/jor.22684]
28. Bandyopadhyay A. Validity of Cooper's 12-minute run test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in male university students. Biol Sport. 2015;32(1):59-63. [Link] [DOI:10.5604/20831862.1127283]
29. Kurokawa S, Fukunaga T, Fukashiro S. Behavior of fascicles and tendinous structures of human gastrocnemius during vertical jumping. J Appl Physiol. 2001. [Link] [DOI:10.1152/jappl.2001.90.4.1349]
30. Vizcaya FJ, Viana O, del Olmo MF, Acero RM. Could the deep squat jump predict weightlifting performance?. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(3):729-34. [Link] [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a04dc3]
31. Hauschild VD, DeGroot DW, Hall SM, Grier TL, Deaver KD, Hauret KG, et al. Fitness tests and occupational tasks of military interest: a systematic review of correlations. Occup Environ Med. 2017;74(2):144-53. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/oemed-2016-103684]
32. Esco MR, Olson MS, Williford H. Relationship of push-ups and sit-ups tests to selected anthropometric variables and performance results: A multiple regression study. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(6):1862-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181fd03]
33. Cook G, Burton L, Hoogenboom B. Pre-participation screening: The use of fundamental movements as an assessment of function-part 1. N Am J Sports Physical Ther. 2006;1(2):62-72. [Link]
34. Minick KI, Kiesel KB, Burton L, Taylor A, Plisky P, Butler RJ. Interrater reliability of the functional movement screen. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(2):479-86. [Link] [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c09c04]
35. Dawson AP, Steele EJ, Hodges PW, Stewart S. Development and test-retest reliability of an extended version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ-E): A screening instrument for musculoskeletal pain. J Pain. 2009;10(5):517-26. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2008.11.008]
36. Porter JM, Gyi D. The prevalence of musculoskeletal troubles among car drivers. Occup Med. 2002;52(1):4-12. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/occmed/52.1.4]
37. Macdonald F, Waclawski E. Upper limb disorders among coopers in the Scotch whisky industry. Occup Med. 2006;56(4):232-6. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/occmed/kql002]
38. Hagen KB, Magnus P, Vetlesen K. Neck/shoulder and low-back disorders in the forestry industry: Relationship to work tasks and perceived psychosocial job stress. Ergonomics. 1998;41(10):1510-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/001401398186243]
39. Palmer K, Smith G, Kellingray S, Cooper C. Repeatability and validity of an upper limb and neck discomfort questionnaire: the utility of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. Occup Medicine. 1999;49(3):171-5. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/occmed/49.3.171]
40. Twisk JW, Smidt N, de Vente W. Applied analysis of recurrent events: a practical overview. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59(8):706-10. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/jech.2004.030759]
41. Kock N, Lynn G. Lateral collinearity and misleading results in variance-based SEM: An illustration and recommendations. J Assoc Inform Syst. 2012;13(7). [Link] [DOI:10.17705/1jais.00302]
42. Knapik JJ, Grier T, Spiess A, Swedler DI, Hauret KG, Graham B, et al. Injury rates and injury risk factors among Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent trainees. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):920. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-920]
43. Taanila H, Suni JH, Kannus P, Pihlajamäki H, Ruohola JP, Viskari J, et al. Risk factors of acute and overuse musculoskeletal injuries among young conscripts: A population-based cohort study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015;16(1):1-19. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12891-015-0557-7]
44. Garcin M, Mille-Hamard L, Billat V. Influence of aerobic fitness level on measured and estimated perceived exertion during exhausting runs. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(4):270-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1055/s-2004-819939]
45. Benjaminse A, Habu A, Sell TC, Abt JP, Fu FH, Myers JB, et al. Fatigue alters lower extremity kinematics during a single-leg stop-jump task. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(4):400-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00167-007-0432-7]
46. Kirtley C. Clinical gait analysis: Theory and practice. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2006. [Link]
47. Powers CM. The influence of abnormal hip mechanics on knee injury: A biomechanical perspective. J Orthopaedic Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(2):42-51. [Link] [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2010.3337]
48. Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, Goldberg B, Cholewicki J. Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk: Prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(7):1123-30. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0363546507301585]
49. Hewett TE, Myer GD. The mechanistic connection between the trunk, knee, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011;39(4):161. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/JES.0b013e3182297439]
50. Hewett TE, Ford KR, Myer GD, Wanstrath K, Scheper M. Gender differences in hip adduction motion and torque during a single‐leg agility maneuver. J Orthop Res. 2006;24(3):416-21. [Link] [DOI:10.1002/jor.20056]
51. van Dieën JH, Selen LP, Cholewicki J. Trunk muscle activation in low-back pain patients, an analysis of the literature. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2003;13(4):333-51. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S1050-6411(03)00041-5]
52. Maeda N, Urabe Y, Sasadai J, Miyamoto A, Murakami M, Kato J. Effect of whole-body-vibration training on trunk-muscle strength and physical performance in healthy adults: Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. J Sport Rehabil. 2016;25(4):357-63. [Link] [DOI:10.1123/jsr.2015-0022]
53. Yildiz S. Relationship between functional movement screen and some athletic abilities in Karate athletes. J Educ Train Stud. 2018;6(8):66-9. [Link] [DOI:10.11114/jets.v6i8.3352]
54. Bagherian S, Ghasempoor K, Rahnama N, Wikstrom EA. The effect of core stability training on functional movement patterns in college athletes. J Sport Rehabil. 2019;28(5):444-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1123/jsr.2017-0107]
55. Cowley JC, Gates DH. Influence of remote pain on movement control and muscle endurance during repetitive movements. Exp Brain Res. 2018;236(8):2309-19. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00221-018-5303-6]
56. Moseley G, Sim D, Henry M, Souvlis T. Experimental hand pain delays recognition of the contralateral hand-Evidence that acute and chronic pain have opposite effects on information processing?. Cogn Brain Res. 2005;25(1):188-94. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.05.008]
57. Bouffard J, Gagné M, Mercier C. Effect of painful and non-painful sensorimotor manipulations on subjective body midline. FrontHuman Neurosci. 2013;7:77. [Link] [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00077]
58. Bray H, Moseley GL. Disrupted working body schema of the trunk in people with back pain. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(3):168-73. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2009.061978]
59. Mista CA, Christensen SW, Graven-Nielsen T. Modulation of motor variability related to experimental muscle pain during elbow-flexion contractions. Human Mov Sci. 2015;39:222-35. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.09.006]
60. Seeley MK, Park J, King D, Hopkins JT. A novel experimental knee-pain model affects perceived pain and movement biomechanics. J Athl Train. 2013;48(3):337-45. [Link] [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.02]
61. Lamothe M, Roy JS, Bouffard J, Gagné M, Bouyer LJ, Mercier C. Effect of tonic pain on motor acquisition and retention while learning to reach in a force field. PloS One. 2014;9(6):e99159. [Link] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099159]
62. Johanson E, Brumagne S, Janssens L, Pijnenburg M, Claeys K, Pääsuke M. The effect of acute back muscle fatigue on postural control strategy in people with and without recurrent low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(12):2152-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00586-011-1825-3]
63. Jones SL, Henry SM, Raasch CC, Hitt JR, Bunn JY. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(1):13-20. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.10.006]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA