[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Volume 10, Issue 4 (Fall 2018) ::
Iran J War Public Health 2018, 10(4): 215-220 Back to browse issues page
Prediction of Resilience Based on Self-Compassion and Empathy in Veterans
H. Mahmoodi *
Psychology Department, Humanities Faculty, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran , mahmoudi.hiva@gmail.com
Abstract:   (481 Views)
Aims: War is one of the influential factors in the public health of the community, which causes a lot of physical and mental harms in people. The aim of this study was to predict the resilience based on self-compassion and empathy in veterans of 8 years of imposed war.
Instruments and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2017 among all veterans with physical and mental injuries caused by the war in Saqqez. Using proportionate stratified random sampling, 297 people (262 men and 35 women) were selected as sample. For data collection, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Davis's Empathy Questionnaire, and Neff's Self-Compassion Questionnaire were used. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, multiple regression analysis, using SPSS 22 software.
Finding: There was a positive and significant correlation among resilience with empathy (r=0.69; p<0.01), self-compassion (r=0.78; p<0.01), be kind to yourself (r=0.81; p<0.01), self-confidence (r=0.73; p<0.01), humanity's commonality (r=0.69; p<0.01), isolation (r=0.50; p<0.01), mindfulness (r=0.61; p<0.01), and over-identifying (r=0.87; p<0.01). Also, there was a positive and significant correlation between resilience and empathic concern (r=0.61; p<0.01) and perspectivism (r=0.51; p<0.01) and a reverse and significant correlation between resilience and personal disturbance (r=-0.78; p<0.01). Self-compassion and empathy were able to predict 71% and 60% of the variance of resilience changes in veterans, respectively, and among these two variables, self-compassion was more effective than empathy.
Conclusion: The veterans with high self-compassion and empathy are more resilient.
Keywords: Resilience, Self-Compassion, Empathy, Veterans
Full-Text [PDF 376 kb]   (151 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: War related injuries and complications
Received: 2018/02/24 | Accepted: 2018/08/7 | Published: 2018/12/11
* Corresponding Author Address: Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences, Golestan University, Shahid Beheshti Street, Gorgan, Iran. Postal Code: 1575941138
English Expanded Abstract [HTML 23 KB]  (7 Download)
References
1. Bahreinian SA, Borhani H. Mental health in a population of veterans and their wives in Qom province. Res Med. 2001;27(4):305-12. [Persian]
2. Conner KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: The Conner-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety. 2003;18(2):76-82. [DOI:10.1002/da.10113]
3. Walsh F. Strengthening family resilience. 3rd Edition. New York and London: Guilford Press; 2016. pp. 23-6.
4. Anasuri S. Building resilience during life stages: Status and strategies. Int J Humanit Soc Sci. 2016;6(3):1-9.
5. Watson CC, Rich BA, Sanchez L, O'Brien K, Alvord MK. Preliminary study of resilience based group therapy for improving the functioning of anxious children. J Child Youth Care Forum. 2014;43(3):269-86. [DOI:10.1007/s10566-013-9238-6]
6. Gilbert P. Defense and safety: Their function in social behavior and psychopathology. Br J Clin Psychol. 1993;32(Pt2):131-53. [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1993.tb01039.x]
7. Neff KD, Germer CK. A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the Mindful Self-Compassion Program. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(1):28-44. [DOI:10.1002/jclp.21923]
8. Alvord MK, Grados JJ. Enhancing resilience in children: A proactive approach. Prof Psychol: Res Pract. 2005;36(3):238-45. [DOI:10.1037/0735-7028.36.3.238]
9. Neff KD, Kirkpatrick KL, Rude SS. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. J Res Personal. 2007;41(1):139-54. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.004]
10. Mashayekh M, Borjali A, Delavar A, Shafi Abadi A. Modeling of victim resilience and their family based on cognitive and emotional variables. J Mil Psychol. 2012;2(8):1-23. [Persian]
11. Ferreira C, Pinto-Gouveia J, Duarte C. Self-compassion in the face of shame and body image dissatisfaction: Implications for eating disorders. Eat Behav. 2013;14(2):207-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.005]
12. Neff KD, Kirkpatrick KL, Rude SS. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. J Res Personal. 2007;41(1):139-54. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.004]
13. Hiraoka R, Meyer EC, Kimbrel NA, DeBeer BB, Gulliver SB, Morissette SB. Self‐compassion as a prospective predictor of PTSD symptom severity among trauma‐exposed US Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2015;28(2):127-33. [DOI:10.1002/jts.21995]
14. Charney DS. Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: Implications for successful adaption to extreme stress. AM J Psychiatry. 2004;161(2):195-216. [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.2.195]
15. Preston SD, De Waal FB. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behav Brain Sci. 2002;25(1):1-71.
16. Greason PB, Cashwell CS. Mindfulness and counseling self-efficacy: The mediating role of attention and empathy. Couns Educ Superv. 2009;49(1):2-19. [DOI:10.1002/j.1556-6978.2009.tb00083.x]
17. Konrath SH, O'Brien EH, Hsing C. Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2011;15(2):180-98. [DOI:10.1177/1088868310377395]
18. Siyez DM, Savi F. Empathy and self-efficacy, and resiliency: An exploratory study of counseling students in Turkey. Proced Soc Behav Sci. 2010;5(2):459-63. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.123]
19. Wren AA, Somers TJ, Wright MA, Goetz MC, Leary MR, Fras AM, et al. Self-compassion in patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain: Relationship of self-compassion to adjustment to persistent pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012;43(4):759-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.04.014]
20. Greene KT, Calhoun PS, Dennis MF, Beckham JC. Exploration of resilience construct in PTSD severity and functional correlates in military combat veteran who have served since September 11, 2001. J Clin psychiatry. 2010;71(7):823-30. [DOI:10.4088/JCP.09m05780blu]
21. Pietrzak RH, Southwick SM. Psychological resilience in OEF-OIF Veterans: Application of a novel classification approach and examination of demographic and psychosocial correlates. J Affect Disord. 2011;133(3):560-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2011.04.028]
22. Akbari Z, Vafaei T, Khosravi S. Relationship between attachment styles and the resiliency amount of veterans wives. Iran J War Public Health. 2011;3(2):12-7. [Persian]
23. Tylka TL, Russell HL, Neal AA. Self-compassion as a moderator of thinness-related pressures' associations with thin ideal internalization and disordered eating. Eat Behav. 2015;17:23-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.12.009]
24. Garmezy N. Resilience and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associate with poverty. Am Behav Sci. 1991;34(4):416-30. [DOI:10.1177/0002764291034004003]
25. Manteghi A, Hebrani P, Samari AA, Heydari AS. Expression level of depression and psychological stress in caring for spouses of veterans hospitalized in psychiatry and its relation with the rate of hospitalization. J Fundam Ment Health. 2010;12(45):410-9.
26. Mohammadi M. Factors affecting resilience in subjects at risk of substance abuse [Dissertation]. Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2006. [Persian]
27. Davis MH. Empathic concern and the muscular dystrophy telethon: Empathy as a multidimensional construct. Personal Soc Psychol Bull. 1983;9(2):223-9. [DOI:10.1177/0146167283092005]
28. Arefi M, Latifian M. Investigating the role of empathy and maxiolistic beliefs in the adequacy and social inability of 9-12-year-old students. J Educ Learn Stud. 2011;3(1):61-82. [Persian]
29. Abolghasemi A, Taghipour M, Narimani M. Relationship between personality type D, self-compassion and social support with health behaviors in coronary heart disease patients. Health Psychol. 2011;1(1):5-19. [Persian]
30. Tedschi RG, Kilmer RP. Assessing strengths, resilience, and growth to guide clinical interventions. Prof Psychol: Res Pract. 2005;36(3):230-7. [DOI:10.1037/0735-7028.36.3.230]
31. Wispé L. The psychology of sympathy. 1st Edition. New York: Springer US; 1991. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4757-6779-7]
32. Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychol inq. 2007;18(4):211-37. [DOI:10.1080/10478400701598298]
33. Refahi ZH, Moghtaderi N. Effectiveness of group empathy training on the increase of couples' intimacy. Fam Couns Psychother. 2012;3(1):44-55. [Persian]
34. Papadatou D. Training health professionals in caring for dying children and grieving families. Death Stud. 1997;21(6):575-600. [DOI:10.1080/074811897201787]
35. Madi Neshat M, Lashkardost H, Tabatabaeichehr M. Investigating the effect of role play scenarios on changing mood and empathy of nursing students in psychiatry. Strides Dev Med Educ. 2012;10(4):431-8. [Persian]
36. Masten AS, Wright MOD. Resilience over the lifespan: Developmental perspectives on resistance, recovery and transformation. In: Reich JW, Zautra AJ, Hall JS, editors. Handbook of adult resilience. New York: Guilford Press; 2010. pp. 213-37.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mahmoodi H. Prediction of Resilience Based on Self-Compassion and Empathy in Veterans. Iran J War Public Health. 2018; 10 (4) :215-220
URL: http://ijwph.ir/article-1-759-en.html


Volume 10, Issue 4 (Fall 2018) Back to browse issues page
مجله طب جانباز Iranian Journal of War and Public Health
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.07 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3921