[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Volume 10, Issue 2 (Spring 2018) ::
Iran J War Public Health 2018, 10(2): 99-105 Back to browse issues page
The Comparison of Coping Styles and Defense Mechanisms in PTSD Veterans and non PTSD Veterans
A. Shariati 1, A. Dehghani * 2
1- Clinical Psychology Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
2- Department of clinical psychology, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Abstract:   (945 Views)
Aims: One of the most important problems of people involved with the war is the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is associated with unpredictable or destructive consequences for the injured person, his or her family, and the commuinity in which he or she lives. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the coping and defense styles in veterans with and without PTSD.
Instrument and Methods: In this causal-comparative descriptive study, in 2016, a number of 80 men, participated in the Iran-Iraq war, were selected from Najafabad, Iran by available sampling method; 40 of them suffered from PTSD and 40 had no disorder. The research tools were Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The data were analyzed by SPSS 21 software, using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). 
Findings: The mean scores in emotion-oriented coping style were significantly different in the two groups (p=0.006). Also, the difference between mean scores in undeveloped defensive styles were significant in both groups (p=0.028).
Conclusion: Veterans with PTSD use emotion-oriented coping style and undeveloped defensive styles more than their peers in the control group.
Keywords: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Coping Skills, Defensive Practice, Veterans
Full-Text [PDF 624 kb]   (250 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: War related injuries and complications
Received: 2017/09/14 | Accepted: 2018/01/8 | Published: 2018/04/23
* Corresponding Author Address: Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Najafabad City, Isfahan, Iran. Postal Code: 8514143131
English Expanded Abstract [HTML 23 KB]  (7 Download)
1. Ebadi M, Azrami S, Shafighi S. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). J Army Nurs Fac Iran. 2012;12(2):68-77. [Persian]
2. Ganji M. Psychopathology based on DSM-5. Tehran: Savalan; 2013. [Persian]
3. Albright DL, Thyer B. Does EMDR reduce post-tramatic stress disorder sympathology in combat veterans?. Behav Interv. 2010;25(1):1-19.
4. Sadock BJ, Kaplan HI, Sadock VA. Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/clinical Psychiatry. Mohaghegh R, translator. Rezaee F, editor. Tehran: Arjmand; 2015. [Persian]
5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-5. Rezaei F, Fakhraee A, charismatic A, lotus A, Hashemi Azar J, Shamloo F, translators. 5th edition. Tehran: Arjmand; 2015. pp. 102-9. [Persian]
6. Sherman MD, Zanotti DK, Jones DE. Key elements in couple's therapy with veterans with combat related posttraumatic stress disorder. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2005;36(6):626-33. [DOI:10.1037/0735-7028.36.6.626]
7. Jordan BK, Marmar CR, Fairbank JA, Schlenger WE, Kulka RA, Hough RL, et al. Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992;60(6):916-26. [DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.60.6.916]
8. Silverstein R. Combat-related trauma as measured by ego developmental indices of defenses and identity achievement. J Genet Psychol. 1996;157(2):169-79. [DOI:10.1080/00221325.1996.9914855]
9. Whisman MA, Snyder DK. Evaluating and improving the efficacy of conjoint couple therapy. In: Halford WK, Markman HJ, Editors. Clinical handbook of marriage and couples interventions. Hoboken: Wiley; 1997. pp. 679-93.
10. Renshaw KD, Allen ES, Rhoades GK, Blais RK, Markman HJ, Stanley SM. Distress in spouses of service members with symptoms of combat-related PTSD: Secondary traumatic stress or general psychological distress?. J Fam Psychol. 2011;25(4):461-9. [DOI:10.1037/a0023994]
11. Bakhshani N, Shakiba M, Mojahed A, Kalantari M, Molavi H, Neshat-Doost H. Comparative investigation of mental health status of spouses of war handicaps in accordance with husband's disability. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2010;12(4):38-42. [Persian]
12. Folkman S, Lazarus RS. Manual for the ways of coping questionnaire. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1988.
13. Dehghani A. Kajbaf MB. The relationship between coping styles and hardiness among students. Knowl Health. 2013;8(3):112-8. [Persian]
14. Shahbazi S, Heydari M, Shaykhi R. The effect of problem solving course on students stress intolerance. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2011;13(2):32-7. [Persian]
15. RezaKhani SD, Pashashrifi H, Delaware A, Shafiabadi A. Stress resources of student. Thought Behav Clin Psychol. 2008;3(9):7-16.
16. Skinner EA, Edge K, Altman J, Sherwood H. Searching for the structure of coping: A review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(2):216-69. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216]
17. Agha yossefi A. Coping ways to post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic stress symptoms. J Behav Sci. 2010;4(1):29-34. [Persian]
18. Khedri B, Dabaghi P. Study of relationship between coping styles and mental health of soldiers. 2015;2(5):195-200. [Persian]
19. Hakami M, Zia Zibari F, Asgari M. Life stressors and coping strategies in the re-emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder in veterans –Kermanshah. J Health Psychol. 2011;1(1):159-75. [Persian]
20. Karstoft K, armour C, Elklit A, Solomon Z. The role of locus of control and coping style in predicting loungitudinal PTSD-trajectories after combat exposur. J Anxiety Disord. 2015;32:89-94. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.03.007]
21. Vaillant GE. Ego mechanisms of defense and personality psychopathology. J Abnorm Psychol. 1994;103(1):44-50. [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.44]
22. Besharat M. Emotional deficits and defensive styles. J Fundam Ment Health. 2008;3(5):181-90. [Persian]
23. Jamil L, Atef Vahid MK, Dehghani M, Habibi M. The mental health through psychodynamic perspective:The relationship between the ego strength, the defense styles, and the object relations to mental health. Iran J Psychitary Clin Psychol. 2015;21(2):144-54. [Persian]
24. Feeney BC, Kirkpatrick LA. Effects of adult attachment and presence of romantic partners on physiological responses to stress. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1996;70(2):255-70. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.255]
25. Puhalla AA, McCloskey MS, Brickman LJ, Fauber R, Coccaro EF. Defense styles in intermittent explosive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016;238:137-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.019]
26. Blaya C, Dornelles M, Blaya R, Kipper L, Heldt E, Isolan L, et al. Do defense mechanisms vary according to the psychiatric disorder?. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2006;28(3):179-83. [DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462006000300007]
27. Kafi SM, Atashkar SR, Amir Alavi S, Rezvani S. Relationship of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychological defence styles in burn patients. Horizon Med Sci. 2013;19(3):155-60. [Persian]
28. Cheung Chung M, Xiaohu Di, Hung Wan k. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity. Psychiatr Res. 2016;243(30):373-81. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.05.057]
29. Powell TJ, Enright SJ. Anexiety and stress management. London: Routledge; 1990.
30. Barak A. The Role of Research Methodology in Counsellor Education: A Case of Second-Order Effects. 1998;32(1):50-63. [Persian]
31. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Coping and adaptation. In: Gentry WD, editor. The handbook of behavioral medicine. New York: Guilford; 1984.
32. Besharat MA, Barati N, Lotfi J. Relationship between coping styles and mental health in a sample of multiple sclerosis patients. Res Med. 2008;32(1):27-35. [Persian]
33. Zarei S, Asadi Z. The comparison of personality characteristics and coping styles in addicted and non-addicted adolescents. J Res Addict. 2013;5(20):87-104. [Persian]
34. Andrews G, Singh M, Bond M. The defense style questionnaire. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1993;181(4):246-56. [DOI:10.1097/00005053-199304000-00006]
35. Ehtesham Zadeh P, Pasha R, Samimi Z. Comparison of defense mechanisms of production personnel, direct repairs and administrative staff of Khuzestan steel. New find psychol. 2012;7(24):21-33. [Persian]
36. Goldberg DP, Gater R, Sartorius N, Ustun TB, Piccinelli M, Gureje O. The validity of two version of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychol Med. 1997;27(1):191-7. [DOI:10.1017/S0033291796004242]
37. Goldberg D, Williams P. A user's guide to the general health questionnaire. United Kingdom: Nfer-Nelson; 1988.
38. Nazifi M, Mokarami H, Akbaritabar A, Faraji Kujerdi M, Tabrizi R, Rahi A. Reliability, validity and factor structure of the persian translation of general health questionnire (GHQ-28) in hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. J Fasa Univ Med Sci. 2014;3(4):336-42. [Persian]
39. Mehrabi H, Norouzi S, Mirzaei Gh, Kazemi H. An investigation the relationship between post traumatic growth and attachment styles, stress coping styles & quality of life in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurse Phys War. 2015;2(4):153-61. [Persian]
40. Palmu R, Suominen K, Vuola J, Isometsa E. Mental disorders after burn injury: A prospective study. Burns. 2011;37(4):601-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2010.06.007]
41. Bowins B. Psychological defense mechanisms: A new perspective. Am J Psychoanal. 2004;64(1):1-26. [DOI:10.1023/B:TAJP.0000017989.72521.26]
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shariati A, Dehghani A. The Comparison of Coping Styles and Defense Mechanisms in PTSD Veterans and non PTSD Veterans. Iran J War Public Health. 2018; 10 (2) :99-105
URL: http://ijwph.ir/article-1-717-en.html

Volume 10, Issue 2 (Spring 2018) Back to browse issues page
مجله طب جانباز Iranian Journal of War and Public Health
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3855